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This book is wholly devoted to assessing the array of links between Scotland and the Caribbean in the later eighteenth century. It uses a wide range of archival sources to paint a detailed picture of the lives of thousands of Scots who sought fortunes and opportunities, as Burns wrote, ‘across th' Atlantic roar’. The book outlines the range of their occupations as planters, merchants, slave owners, doctors, overseers and politicians, and shows how Caribbean connections affected Scottish society during the period of ‘improvement’. The book highlights the Scots' reinvention of the system of clanship to structure their social relations in the empire and finds that involvement in the Caribbean also bound Scots and English together in a shared Atlantic imperial enterprise and played a key role in the emergence of the British nation and the Atlantic world.

The debate on the polity of the church was at the centre of the religious debates in the British Atlantic world during the middle decades of the seventeenth-century. From the Covenanter revolution in Scotland, to the congregationalism of the New England colonies, to the protracted debates of the Westminster assembly, and the abolition of the centuries-old episcopalian structure of the Church of England, the issue of the polity of the church was intertwined with the political questions of the period. This book collects together essays focusing on the conjunction of church polity and politics in the middle years of the seventeenth century. A number of chapters in the volume address the questions and conflicts arising out of the period’s reopening and rethinking of the Reformation settlement of church and state. In addition, the interplay between the localities and the various Westminster administrations of the era are explored in a number of chapters. Beyond these discussions, chapters in the volume explore the deeper ecclesiological thinking of the period, examining the nature of the polity of the church and its relationship to society at large. The book also covers the issues of liberty of conscience and how religious suffering contributed to a sense of what the true church was in the midst of revolutionary political upheaval. This volume asserts the fundamental connection between church polity and politics in the revolutions that affected the seventeenth-century British Atlantic world.

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Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
Elliot Vernon

Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction: church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66 Elliot Vernon T he topic of church polity is one of the ‘Cinderella’ subjects of early modern religious history, late to the ball but entrancing none the less.1 The chapters presented in this volume argue that the topic of church polity was a crucial factor in the politics of the British Atlantic world during the mid-seventeenth century. By ‘church polity’ is meant the manner in which the church is structured and governed. It is related to the term

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
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Douglas J. Hamilton

number of contexts. They were not just an ‘ethnic’ group. Networks of Scots were highly complex and adaptable phenomena which were at once familial, Scottish, British and Atlantic. As a result of the activity of the networks, the Scottish–Caribbean interaction emerges as a dynamic and symbiotic relationship, as an underpinning of the Atlantic world as a transnational world of exchanges

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
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Douglas J. Hamilton

: high mortality, the threat of indebtedness and the difficulties of repatriating money all meant that not all Scots fulfilled their ambitions in the islands. This book explores these themes through a study of Scottish involvement in planting, trade, medicine and politics. Although it is a study in Atlantic world history, this book draws on a number of (often distinct) historiographical traditions

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
Douglas J. Hamilton

In many ways merchants embody the idea of an Atlantic world more clearly than any other group. Indeed, mercantile activity has been central to scholarly conceptions of the Atlantic as a transnational maritime world of exchanges. 1 This chapter’s main characters (the firms of Alexander Houstoun & Co. and the Baillie family’s houses in London and Bristol) demonstrate the

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
Douglas J. Hamilton

multi-layered. In their Atlantic world, a willingness to be British was important. To succeed in the empire, and to make their way in England on their return, Scots had to be British. By the second half of the century many could do this comfortably. They shared with their southern neighbours a belief in Protestantism, in empire, in the Crown, in liberty and in commerce. 71 For Scots in the Caribbean to portray themselves

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
Douglas J. Hamilton

imposing its will on the colonies. The layers of individual and network connections, and their patronage links, added to the shared beliefs in ‘British’ ideals like liberty, Protestantism and loyalty to the Crown that have been outlined in the previous chapter. 1 As a result, political events in one part of the British Atlantic world could affect those in another, which, in turn, had implications for the government of

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
An exploration of church polity and the governance of the region’s churches
Francis J. Bremer

puritanism in an Atlantic world (Hanover, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2012), p. 62, and discussed at pp. 45–62. 84 This dispute is discussed in more depth in Bremer, Building a new Jerusalem, pp. 314–38, with particular attention to the polity issues. The quotations can be found there. 85 Edward Taylor’s ‘church records’ and related sermons, eds T. M. Davis and V. L. Davis (Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 1981), p. xxxii. 86 P. R. Lucas, Valley of discord: church and society along the Connecticut River, 1636– 1725 (Hanover, NH: University Press of New

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
David Ceri Jones

activities of ambitious and speculative individuals who carved out a new life or career for themselves in the colonies. The relatively recent innovation that is Atlantic history, or the history of the Atlantic world, presents the historian with an alternative way of configuring the history of Britain’s overseas empire. 11 Peter Marshall’s observation that the early eighteenth-century empire could mean just as easily ‘power or dominant interests outside Britain’ as control over territory, hints at the need of a

in Wales and the British overseas empire