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Placing the Irish and Scots in Colonial Australia

This book takes two of the most influential minority groups of white settlers in the British Empire—the Irish and the Scots—and explores how they imagined themselves within the landscapes of its farthest reaches, the Australian colonies of Victoria and New South Wales. Using letters and diaries as well as records of collective activities such as committee meetings, parades and dinners, it examines how the Irish and Scots built new identities as settlers in the unknown spaces of Empire. Utilizing critical geographical theories of ‘place’ as the site of memory and agency, the book considers how Irish and Scots settlers grounded their sense of belonging in the imagined landscapes of south-east Australia. Emphasizing the complexity of colonial identity formation and the ways in which this was spatially constructed, it challenges conventional understandings of the Irish and Scottish presence in Australia. The opening chapters locate the book's themes and perspectives within a survey of the existing historical and geographical literature on empire and diaspora. These pay particular attention to the ‘new’ imperial history and to alternative transnational and ‘located’ understandings of diasporic consciousness. Subsequent chapters work within these frames and examine the constructions of place evinced by Irish and Scottish emigrants during the outward voyage and subsequent processes of pastoral and urban settlement, and in religious observance.

Australian Voyages, c. 1815-1860

During the nineteenth century, over 1.5 million migrants set sail from the British Isles to begin new lives in the Australian colonies. This book follows these people on a fascinating journey around half the globe to give a rich account of the creation of lay and professional medical knowledge in an ever-changing maritime environment. It shows how voyages to Australia partook of colonialism. On leaving the ports, estuaries, and harbours of Britain and Ireland, ships' captains negotiated the adverse winds of the English Channel and the Irish Sea before steering into the Atlantic and heading south-by-south west across the heavy swells of the Bay of Biscay. The book dwells in the tropics, where the experience of calms reinforced and extended preconceptions about the coast of West Africa. It discusses convicts, showing how scurvy became resurgent as British prison committees steadily reduced prison dietary rations during the 1820s and 1830s. Despite their frustrations, the isolation of the ocean and the vulnerability of convicts' bodies offered surgeons an invaluable opportunity for medical experimentation during the 1840s. The book also shows how a series of questions about authority, class, gender, and social status mediated medical relationships as the pressures of the voyage accumulated. Themes of mistrust, cooperation, and coercion emerged in many different ways during the voyage. Australia, where, as emigrants became immigrants, the uncertainties of government responsibility combined with a poisonous political atmosphere to raise questions about eligibility and the conditions of admittance to their new colonial society.

reflection of the cultural and emotional tussle that afflicted those who sought to build a new colonial society while remaining citizens of a wider empire. 1 However, there has been less success in attempting to identify the sources for the cultural and emotional bonds to the British homeland which endured for well over a century after the Australian colonies became more or less self-governing. While it is

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

related to circumstances in the British Isles is problematic. The remote penitentiary The Australian case was famously different from, and began more than a century later than, the great transatlantic migrations from the British Isles. The Australasian colonies eventually developed unusual systems of migration and operated uniquely long-distance transfers of large numbers of British migrants. The articulation of emigration to the Australian colonies required much larger state intervention to initiate and maintain the flows of people to the other side of the globe. Its

in The genesis of international mass migration

features. It was they, the labouring poor, the displaced artisans, the Scottish crofters and the Irish peasants, who formed the diaspora which became the immigrant population to the Australian colonies. Their hunger for independence coincided with a capitalist enterprise focused on proprietorship in land. Democratization of land ownership among the non

in Law, history, colonialism
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transportation had upon tens of thousands of families. In the half-century between 1803 and 1852, approximately 67,888 men and 12,116 women were transported to the British penal colony of Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania, Australia), one part of a much larger flow of around 163,000 convicts deported to the Australian colonies between the late eighteenth and the midnineteenth centuries. 2 In common with many of

in Gender, crime and empire
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as a barometer of colonial quality: A vast deal of good has been done by these cricketing visits to and from the Australian colonies. They have been the best advertisement of our prosperity and energy these colonies could have had; they have shown, physically at least, there has been no deterioration

in The imperial game
Open Access (free)
One or two ‘honorable cannibals’ in the House?

already existing and the new, and then conceded responsible government to the colonists. Further, by 1860 the legislatures of the eastern and south-eastern Australian colonies had instituted full manhood suffrage. Formally, the Indigenous peoples of the Australasian colonies, Aborigines and Maori, were included in this rush along the path to self-government and democracy. Closer examination reveals that colonists

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Travel writing and narratives of transit

Zealand held a special place in the minds of imperial travellers. Its geographic distance was belied by its cultural similarity, and many travellers who found the mainland Australian colonies uncomfortably replete with brash and self-confident colonists saw New Zealand as an alternative to overt rejections of British heritage. Even New Zealand’s distance was at times an advantage

in New Zealand’s empire
The Queen’s currency and imperial pedagogies on Australia’s south-eastern settler frontiers

both a testing and a form of imperial pedagogy, which would become increasingly crucial to the shaping of both Indigenous and British colonial identities in the Australian colonies. On remote frontiers especially, where British settlers experienced feelings of separation and exile, and their Britishness was rendered fragile, the monarchy was seen to be ‘at the heart of

in Mistress of everything