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Refugees in the era of the Great War

This book talks about the mass displacement of civilians, estimated to be 14 to 15 million, in the twentieth-century Europe during the First World War. It looks at the causes and consequences of the refugee crisis and its aftermath, and the attempts to understand its significance. Key sites of displacement extended from Belgium to Armenia, taking in France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, East Prussia, the Russian Empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Serbia. The German army's occupation of Belgium, France, Poland and Lithuania prompted the mass flight of refugees, as did Russia's invasion of East Prussia in 1914. Jewish, Ruthenian and Polish civilians in the Habsburg Empire fled their homes or were deported by the military to distant locations. Following Italy's attack on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the Habsburg authorities ordered around 100,000 Slovenian subjects of the empire to leave. The Austrian and Bulgarian invasion of Serbia brought about a humanitarian catastrophe as civilians and the remnants of the Serbian army sought safety elsewhere. However, mass flight of civilian refugees did not begin in 1914 nor did it come to an end in 1918. Muslim refugees fled to the relative safety of Anatolia in order to escape violent persecution by Bulgarian and other forces during the Balkan Wars on 1912-13. There were complex movements of population between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey before 1914. The complex process of repatriation and resettlement affected soldiers and civilians alike and rarely took place in stable or peaceful circumstances.

The lives of Lewis Namier

Lewis Namier was one of the most important historians of the twentieth century. His work on the politics of the 1760s, based on the ‘scientific’ analysis of a mass of contemporary documents, and emphasising the material and psychological elements of human motivation, was seen by contemporaries as ’revolutionary’ and remains controversial. It gave a new word to the English language: to Namierise. Moreover, Namier played a major role in public affairs, in the Foreign Office, 1915–20, and in the Zionist Organisation in the 1930s, and was close to many of the leading figures of his day. This is the first biography of Namier for half a century, and the first to integrate all aspects of his life and thought. Based on a comprehensive range of sources, including the entire corpus of Namier’s writings, it provides a full account of his background, examines his role in politics and reconstructs his work as a historian, showing the origins and development of his ideas about the past, and the subjects which preoccupied him: nationalism, empire, and the psychology of individuals and groups. Namier’s life and writings illuminate many of the key events of the twentieth century, his belief in the power of nationalism and the importance of national territory, foreshadowing problems which still beset our own world.

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James Crossland

Horse-drawn carriages had given way to petrol-driven motorcars, but to glance at the procession that snaked its way through the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the morning of 28 June 1914, one could be forgiven for thinking they were witnessing an episode from the life of Napoleon III or Tsar Alexander II. Six highly polished vehicles comprised the motorcade that ushered Archduke Franz Ferdinand – heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and nephew of the now eighty-three-year-old Franz Joseph – and his wife

in The rise of devils
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The sanitary control of Muslim pilgrims from the Balkans, 1830–1914
Christian Promitzer

based upon the new scientific findings provided by bacteriology.6 In my opinion, the fact that most of the existing historiography on the relation between the Muslim pilgrimage and cholera concentrates Sanitary control of Balkan Muslim pilgrims 147 on Western Europe, the Middle East and British India is responsible for a most interesting part of the story remaining completely ignored. I am referring to the question of Balkan Muslims, and also in part to the role of the Habsburg Empire (Austria-Hungary), in the control of the Hajj from 1867. With regard to the

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War
Martina Hermann

from border regions. In a programme devised by the Ministry of War and implemented by the army in Cisleithanian border regions, Ruthenians, Poles and Jews in Galicia and Bukovina, as well as the Serb-Croatian population of Bosnia and (after 1915) the Italianspeaking population of South Tyrol and Trentino, were evacuated and deported into other parts of the monarchy.1 This chapter introduces refugee/evacuee politics in Austria-Hungary, in particular Cisleithania, and then explores the approach of the Habsburg administration towards refugees. (For the sake of

in Europe on the move
Open Access (free)
A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78
Alexis Heraclides
Ada Dialla

. Diplomatic initiatives, the Bulgarians and the Serbs Great power diplomacy The uprisings in Herzegovina and Bosnia against Ottoman rule were a source of major concern, especially for Vienna, which feared the creation of a large Slav state bordering Dalmatia and Croatia and thus toyed with the idea of annexing the region. 1 Russia called for three-state mediation in the crisis (Russia, Austria–Hungary and Germany) within the confines of the

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Mariusz Korzeniowski

v 3 v Refugees from Polish territories in Russia during the First World War Mariusz Korzeniowski Introduction Warfare on Polish soil in 1914–15 caused huge material losses, as well as the impoverishment and deprivation of the local population.1 The war also led to mass displacement, much of it involuntary, involving people living in the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, a constituent part of the Russian Empire, and in Galicia, belonging to Austria-Hungary. Migration began in the first weeks of the war but acquired a mass character only in the latter half of

in Europe on the move
The scholarly persona under authoritarianism
Monika Baár

contributed to the makeup of his ‘scholarly DNA’ which, like real DNA, in interaction with his environment made him the scholar that he became. In that context, this chapter will reveal that Hanák’s persona was deeply influenced by the legacy of civic-liberal patriotism which had its origins in fin-de-siècle Austria-Hungary. The chapter discusses his ars poetica as a historian and his activities as a public 164 of communism, compromise and central europe intellectual. It reveals that Hanák forged his own persona by navigating his way across a range of personae. From these

in How to be a historian
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

Hungarian Jewry and the wartime crisis in Austria-Hungary v 7 v Between refugees and the state: Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary1 Rebekah Klein-Pejšová Introduction Galician Jews crossed the border by the thousands into the Kingdom of Hungary when Russian troops advanced on the Eastern Front in September 1914. They fled from the Russian army, aware of the fate of Jews in Russia’s western borderlands expelled en masse from their homes and sent deep into the interior of the empire by military commanders fearful of breaches

in Europe on the move
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.