The development of Protestantism in Nantes, 1558–72

Chap 3 19/6/06 9:46 am Page 53 3 Challenges to authority: the development of Protestantism in Nantes, 1558–72 ‘The faith of the people of Brittany has always been so constant and pure that the heresy of the last century, so widespread in all the provinces of the kingdom, was not able to penetrate this one.’1 Antoine Boschet’s seventeenthcentury life of the Jesuit missionary Julien Maunoir echoed the popular belief then current in Brittany that the province was little affected by the Calvinism which emerged in France after 1550. But the reality was different

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

This book explores the theory and practice of authority during the later sixteenth century, in the religious culture and political institutions of the city of Nantes, where the religious wars traditionally came to an end with the great Edict of 1598. The Wars of Religion witnessed serious challenges to the authority of the last Valois kings of France. In an examination of the municipal and ecclesiastical records of Nantes, the author considers challenges to authority, and its renegotiation and reconstruction in the city, during the civil war period. After a detailed survey of the socio-economic structures of the mid-sixteenth-century city, successive chapters detail the growth of the Protestant church, assess the impact of sectarian conflict and the early counter reform movement on the Catholic Church, and evaluate the changing political relations of the city council with the urban population and with the French crown. Finally, the book focuses on the Catholic League rebellion against the king and the question of why Nantes held out against Henry IV longer than any other French city.

Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89

Chap 6 19/6/06 9:48 am Page 151 6 The authority of tradition: Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89 In 1600, with the religious wars over and Brittany once more at peace, a young Bohemian traveller visited Nantes. He admired the fortifications and convents of the city and observed that the Breton towns were ‘more rigorous that any others in their observance of the Catholic faith, such that . . . everyone, even the sick, is forbidden, and indeed refuses, to eat meat on fast days’.1 Yet in the 1550s and 1560s there arose a Protestant movement which attracted up to

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

5 Legitimate authority The criterion of legitimate authority has become the most neglected of all the criteria that have been traditionally employed in the moral assessment of war. Nowhere is this more evident than in the popular assessment of contemporary terrorism. For many the central moral issue raised by terrorism is that of non-­combatant immunity. The peculiar moral vulnerability of terrorism is seen to lie in its tendency to violate this principle of just conduct. As one study of terrorism argues: ‘Perhaps the main obstacle to any agreement that

in The ethics of war
Poetic tradition in The Parliament of Fowls and the Mutabilitie Cantos

: Thow hast the so wel born In lokynge of myn olde bok totorn, Of which Macrobye roughte nat a lyte, That sumdel of thy labour wolde I quyte. 1 Scipio Africanus has apparently kept an eye on his reputation in the centuries following his death, for what we have here is an ancient Roman authority telling a late medieval English poet that Macrobius, the late antique commentator, thought his book was something special. Africanus overreaches a bit to claim the

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser

8 Authority and governance We must go out and conquer the world without being afraid of the difficulties or snares it sets in our way. There must be nothing petty about a Sister of Notre Dame. She must have the strong heart of a man, and a generous soul filled with the spirit of the good God.1 This directive found in the Book of the Instructions of Blessed Mère Julie (1909) was uncompromising. The founder Julie Billiart warned of impending struggles defeated only by the sister of Notre Dame’s ‘strong heart of a man’ and her soul filled with the ‘spirit of the

in Contested identities

6 Chaucer and hagiographic authority Jennifer L. Sisk While much has been written about Chaucer’s debt to French, Italian and Classical literature,1 comparatively little attention has been devoted to Chaucer’s engagement with hagiography, even though writing about the saints was the most popular and widespread medieval narrative tradition.2 Chaucer’s own legend of St Cecilia is generally regarded as the first (or most) literary example of vernacular hagiography produced in late medieval England, but his engagement with the tradition goes far beyond the

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain

With the Iraqi Interim Authority concept abandoned, Bush and Rumsfeld allowed the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) to become an instrument of occupation. The CPA was characterized by confusion over objectives and organization of a kind that Rumsfeld usually found intolerable. It had an ambiguous mandate, an odd relationship with the military, and multiple lines of reporting back

in Leaders in conflict
The politics of co-collecting

Agency and authority: the politics of co-collecting Sean Mallon There is a seashell in the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Te Papa) that was collected on one of the coral atolls of Tokelau in the 1990s and gifted to the museum in 2006 by a Tokelauan man called Kupa Kupa.1 We do not have a collection of unmodified seashells in the Pacific Cultures storeroom in the museum. We have shell cultural valuables, shell necklaces, shell trumpets, shell decorated shields and canoes, but no seashell collection. Yet this shell is one of our most interesting cultural

in Curatopia

6 Symbolic authority and kinship We have seen that the primary political act of the sovereign is to define who is friend and who is enemy; who is protected as part of the community and who is excluded or banished. This suggests that an understanding of kinship is also essential to any analysis of sovereignty. Understood from this perspective, the sovereign is a symbolic authority organising, regulating and policing the activities of those who live within a territory. The fact that the sovereign traditionally has his analogue in the despot (despotēs in Greek) or

in Sovereignty and superheroes