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This book presents key texts relating to the political as well as to the broader socio-economic history of the reign of Edward II. Drawing on a wide range of narrative sources, especially the extensive chronicle accounts of the reign, the editors also introduce other important material, including parliamentary rolls, charters, court records and accounts. Together this gathering of sources allows the reader to navigate this troubled and eventful period in English medieval history. The volume is organised chronologically, guiding the reader from the moment of Edward II’s accession in 1307 until his removal from office in 1327 and his supposed death in the same year. The editors also introduce more thematic chapters throughout, addressing such key themes as royal finances and the state of the early fourteenth-century economy, the role of parliament, and political and military engagement with Scotland. In an introductory essay, the editors discuss previous historical work directed at the reign of Edward II and also outline the range of source types available to the historian of the reign. Each section of primary source is also introduced by the editors, who offer a contextual analysis in each instance.

Philip M. Taylor

of armies of foot-soldiers, of the type that had triumphed over mounted knights in the battles of Courtrai in 1302, Bannockburn in 1314, Morgarten in 1315, and Crécy in 1346. Previously a secondary and less well-trained arm of warfare since later Roman times (or perhaps it was simply a less-glamorous arm which attracted insufficient attention from the chroniclers), it was the Swiss who reminded Europe of the value of foot-soldiers, but the English also used them effectively – especially after the introduction of the longbow by Edward I and by the use of pikemen

in Munitions of the Mind
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authority and reduce that of his opponents in England. There is some indication that had he been victorious he would have employed his enhanced position to destroy those, such as Lancaster, whom he presently had to accommodate. That, however, was not to be. The crushing defeat at Bannockburn is recounted in a number of contemporary or near-contemporary chronicles [ 20a–c ]. The siege of Stirling Castle by

in The reign of Edward II, 1307–27
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National traditions and political dilemmas
Ben Wellings

Bannockburn and Bastille Day, 2014 Two commemorative events in the middle of 2014 highlighted England’s peculiar relationship to nationalism. The 700th anniversary commemoration of the Battle of Bannockburn that took place on 27 June 2014 with live re-enactments was given extra frisson by the impending referendum on Scottish independence later that year. Three weeks later, the annual Bastille Day Parade on 14 July not only commemorated the capture of the (almost empty) prison that came to symbolise the start of the French

in English nationalism, Brexit and the Anglosphere
Alison Morgan

spirit, Let ev’ry energy appear; Shew Freedom still to you is dear, By ‘warding79 them the doom they merit. To – to –. 10  ‘The Manchester Massacre, or Adieu to Slavery’ This song was to be sung to the tune ‘Scots wha hae wi’ Wallace bled’, the lyrics to which were written in 1793 by Robert Burns and take the form of a speech given by Robert the Bruce to his troops on the eve of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 when the Scots defeated the English. Burns used a traditional Scottish tune, ‘Hey Tuttie Tatie’, which, it was widely believed, was played by Bruce’s army at

in Ballads and songs of Peterloo
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How to establish a movement and win support
Matt Qvortrup

bard. He made it up. But his endeavours had the intended effect and contributed to building a common Scottish identity. Based on these ideas, the perhaps more famous Robert Burns composed patriotic songs that drew on myths. His Scots Wha Hae (“Scots who have”) – an unofficial anthem of Scotland – was purported to be a speech made by Robert the Bruce before the Battle of Bannockburn, a decisive battle

in I want to break free
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Murray Stewart Leith
Duncan Sim

such events that acted to unify the country, as well as those that may have caused division. Obviously, this will include such politically and historically well-known events as the Battle of Bannockburn, the Union of the Crowns in 1603, the not so civil wars of the 1600s, the Treaty of Union in 1707 and Scotland as part of the new ‘United’ Kingdom of Great Britain and its place in the growing British Empire. It was these core events that gave rise to the more contemporary Scotland that we present throughout the rest of this work. Finally, as a conclusion, we will

in Scotland
Open Access (free)
Murdo Macdonald

Gaelic culture and Lowland Scots culture. This is very often seen as a site of conflict rather than unity in Scotland, and certainly on occasion it has been. Yet it can be recalled that it was the unity of Highland and Lowland that assured a Bruce victory at Bannockburn in the fourteenth century and thus asserted Scottish independence after three hundred years of varied incursions from south of the Border. The point is that Bannockburn, far from asserting the nation as culturally homogeneous, asserted national independence as dependent on cultural diversity. Similarly

in Across the margins
Angela McCarthy

wake, The hero sinks in crimson lake, And mighty Wallace dies . . . Pale Scotia mourned in sable weed, The tyrant’s cruel, ruthless deed, But soon her robe was changed; Unto her cause the beams return, And reeking red ran Bannockburn, Great Wallace was avenged. 138 Andrew

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
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Murray Stewart Leith
Duncan Sim

national borders. Any discussion of national identity must clearly recognise that the foundation myths of that national identity are often subject to personal preferences and whims, even while founded in history and factual events. While many may disagree on the actual resultant outcomes of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, it has come to be perceived as the milestone for the establishment of Scottish independence in the fourteenth century. The importance of such myths becomes evident. Likewise, who and what constitutes a Scot in the modern era is clearly a matter for

in Scotland