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Maryinez Lyons

made it quite clear that every European in the district – whether in government employment or not – was obliged to participate in the campaign against sleeping sickness. 26 The First World War The exigencies of war revealed not only the coercive nature of European medical intervention in the Belgian Congo, they also brought about changes in the nature of that intervention. An

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Abstract only
Anthropology, European imperialism, and the politics of knowledge

Many questions present themselves when considering the historical relationship between anthropology and empire following the Scramble for Africa. These include the extent of imperial fortunes in Africa, rising and falling with officials' knowledge of the people under their jurisdiction. This book looks at the institutional frameworks of anthropology, and shows that the colonial project to order Africa, intellectually and politically, was a messy and not-so comprehensive endeavor. It first considers the roles of metropolitan researchers and institutes such as the colonial ethnographers active in French West Africa, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Berlin, and the British-based International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The book deals with the role of African ethnograpghers for their study on African teaching assistants and schoolmasters-cum-ethnographers, and the study of Jomo Kenyatta's journey to produce Facing Mount Kenya. Swiss missionaries undertook discovery and domestication first on European soil before it was transferred to African soils and societies. Primordial imagination at work in equatorial Africa is discussed through an analysis of Fang ethnographies, and the infertility scares among Mongo in the Belgian Congo is contrasted with the Nzakara in the French Congo. Once colonial rule had been imposed, administrators and imperial managers were often forced to consider those judicial and social rules that had governed Africans' lives and had predated colonialism. Studies of Italian Northeast Africa, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and French West Africa reveal the uneven ways in which ethnographic knowledge was pursued and applied in this respect.

John M. MacKenzie

into the 1950s. 14 After the First World War many ivory hunters operated in the Belgian Congo and French Equatorial Africa. Until the late 1920s the game regulations there were more liberal than in British territories, while vast remote areas offered opportunities for infringements of such regulations as did exist and cross-border smuggling facilitated the disposal of ivory. Moreover large numbers of

in The Empire of Nature
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

Colonial Minister to carry on his own political career apart from his work at the Belgian Colonial Office, and put your husband in.182 Meanwhile, other British campaigners continued to adopt a critical stance towards the Belgian Congo.183 Despite continuing problems in Africa, the Congo Reform Association dissolved in 1913. Public attention in Britain was on the wane and Morel had reached the conclusion that ‘he was fighting for a losing cause’.184 Institutional legacies The Congo atrocities make it easy to be cynical about the humanitarian rhetoric attached to Belgian

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930
Thomas D’haeninck, Jan Vandersmissen, Gita Deneckere, and Christophe Verbruggen

the European mainland. Medicine in the Belgian Congo, as Sokhieng Au makes clear, cannot be understood without acknowledging the competing presence and influence of American Protestant missions in the region. 71 National health protection and the well-being of the state and its citizens At the turn of the twentieth century and especially after the

in Medical histories of Belgium
The rhetoric of control and Belgium’s late colonial state
Matthew Stanard

; the messages it contained; critical reception; and so forth. 25 Belgian news outlets promoted positive foreign articles, such as when a 1952 Nation Belge article, ‘The Belgian Congo viewed by an American’, reported on W. Robert Moore’s National Geographic report, ‘White Magic in the Belgian Congo’, emphasizing how Moore ‘endeavors in particular to bring to light the progress accomplished

in Rhetorics of empire
Open Access (free)
Sokhieng Au and Anne Cornet

. We also must keep in mind that no matter how inclusively we want to define colonial medicine, or even if we speak generally of European medicine, it was the medicine of a tiny minority. The vast majority of medicine practised in the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi would fall under the realm of what is now called traditional medicine, but what was at the time called ‘sorcery

in Medical histories of Belgium
Nancy Rose Hunt

, as well as those unable to become pregnant again or carry pregnancies successfully to term – among ‘the Mongo’ in the Belgian Congo’s Tshuapa District, and among the Nzakara in French Ubangi-Shari (a province of French Equatorial Africa, now the Central African Republic). 3 Unlike most of the British African colonial situations treated by historians, the Mongo and Nzakara

in Ordering Africa
Guy Vanthemsche

the Second World War, Belgian rule in Africa was increasingly questioned by anti-colonial opinion, for example, in the United Nations. These recurrent ‘threats’ to Belgian sovereignty in Africa led the authorities continually to reaffirm the legitimacy and the ‘positive effects’ of their overseas rule. By the same logic, they also tried to isolate the Belgian Congo, as much of possible, from external influences. 3 In the Congo

in Royals on tour
David Killingray

in order to help compensate for her demographic weakness compared to Germany. By late 1914 large numbers of French West African troops were fighting on the Western Front. Other colonial armies in peacetime numbered only a few thousand, the largest being the 15–20,000 strong Force Publique in the Belgian Congo. Wartime manpower crises led the colonial powers to amend their policies and to employ

in Guardians of empire