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Europeanisation and Belgian federalism
Christian Franck, Hervé Leclercq, and Claire Vandevievere

2444Ch3 3/12/02 3 2:02 pm Page 69 Christian Franck, Hervé Leclercq and Claire Vandevievere Belgium: Europeanisation and Belgian federalism Introduction: European integration as a historical lesson of neutrality For about fifty years, the Belgian policy toward European integration is the most significant demonstration Belgium has made of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security as well as in economic affairs. Even if Belgium had already illustrated such an orientation through its participation in multilateral trade and

in Fifteen into one?
Peace, progress and prestige
Author: Daniel Laqua

This study investigates internationalism through the prism of a small European country. It explores an age in which many groups and communities – from socialists to scientists – organised themselves across national borders. Belgium was a major hub for transnational movements. By taking this small and yet significant European country as a focal point, the book critically examines major historical issues, including nationalism, colonial expansion, political activism and international relations. A main aim is to reveal the multifarious and sometimes contradictory nature of internationalism. The Belgian case shows how within one particular country, different forms of internationalism sometimes clashed and sometimes converged.

The book is organised around political movements and intellectual currents that had a strong presence in Belgium. Each of the main chapters is dedicated to a key theme in European history: nationhood, empire, the relationship between church and state, political and social equality, peace, and universalism. The timeframe ranges from the fin de siècle to the interwar years. It thus covers the rise of international associations before the First World War, the impact of the conflagration of 1914, and the emergence of new actors such as the League of Nations.

With its discussion of campaigns and activities that ranged beyond the nation-state, this study is instructive for anyone interested in transnational approaches to history.

When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss, evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’ scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The development of a professional academic community in the second half of the century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society. It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.

Christine E. Hallett

1 Heroines in Belgium and Serbia Introduction: plucky nurses At the outbreak of the First World War British women volunteered for war service in such numbers that organisations such as the Red Cross and the Order of St John of Jerusalem found themselves, initially, overwhelmed. Many of those who offered to nurse the wounded held no nursing qualifications of any kind, and had to wait until they had passed VAD examinations, or acquired full nurse-training in recognised training hospitals, before they could gain acceptance for military service. American women, too

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Michaël Amara

Belgian refugees (France, Britain, Netherlands) v 9 v Belgian refugees during the First World War (France, Britain, Netherlands) Michaël Amara Introduction: the exodus The German invasion of Belgium in the First World War, from August to October 1914, led to the flight of more or less 1.5 million Belgian civilians. The vast majority of them sought asylum abroad, in the Netherlands, France and Great Britain. The magnitude of this exodus gave birth to a huge diaspora unique in the history of Belgium. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children of all ages

in Europe on the move
Guy Vanthemsche

Many know that King Leopold II played a decisive role in the creation of the Belgian empire in Central Africa. The king was driven by a life-long and obsessional quest for profitable overseas territories, in spite of the original indifference, reticence or even hostility of most of Belgium’s leading politicians and businessmen. 1 His tenacity finally led to the establishment of the Congo Free State in 1885. Leopold

in Royals on tour
Maryinez Lyons

Colonial powers commonly regarded their medical and public health programmes as a form of compensation for the hardships caused by their colonisation of African peoples. 1 By the early 1940s the Belgians were proud of their colonial medical services in the Congo which they considered to be an outstanding feature of their ‘civilising mission’. The history of medical services in the

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Daniel Biltereyst

Arguing that limit transgression is a key feature for understanding the cinematic performance of, and the controversy around, sexuality in the public sphere, this contribution focuses on various aspects of limit transgression in relation to sex cinemas. Following a new cinema history approach and concentrating on the case of an emerging sex cinema in postwar Belgium (Cinema Leopold in Ghent, 1945–54), this article looks at various dimensions of limit transgression in terms of concrete physical and spatial relations; programming strategies; audience experiences; and a range of disciplining societal practices and institutional discourses.

Film Studies
Luc Bourgeois

preconception about the decline of fortification techniques after the end of the Roman Empire in the west. The same trends have long prevailed in Belgian and Swiss investigations. Since 1990, however, the situation has started to change: excavations have increased in number and the question of places of power in the early Middle Ages is now at the centre of historians’ and archaeologists’ focus. Yet, only a very fragmentary assessment can be drawn from these surveys, which I propose to articulate here under three main topics: the impact of the past on

in Early medieval militarisation
Popular responses to imperialism in France, Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Italy

The European scramble for colonies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was driven by rather more than the interests of an elite, aristocratic and bourgeois. This book is about the 'colonisation of consciousness'. It surveys in comparative form the transmission of imperial ideas to the public in six European countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The book offers six case studies on France, Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Italy, providing parallel studies of the manner in which colonial ambitions and events in the respective European empires were given wider popular visibility. The book demonstrates the inter-war years that saw the stepping up of imperial propaganda throughout the surviving imperial powers. Inspired by the directions of research pioneered by John MacKenzie, specialists of the French Empire started to combine methodologies from social and cultural history to revise the perception of French popular imperialism. Germany's imperialism is analysed along the axes of mobility and migration, 'race' and the sciences, commodities and markets, the missions and imperialist social formations, and the vast field of popular culture. What sets popular imperialism in Belgium apart from others is the remarkable yet ironic reverence reserved for Leopold II. Power rivalries, ingenious if tricky diplomacy, and Leopold's tenacity resulted in recognition of his rule over much of the Congo around the time of the Berlin conference. So far as the peoples of Europe were concerned, the imperial experience helped, paradoxically, to further 'Eurocentrism' and install the naturalisation of Europeanness as 'whiteness'.