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The international relations of a South American giant
Author: Sean W. Burges

This book contributes to the construction of an integrated analysis of Brazilian foreign policy by focusing on the country's insertion into both the regional and global system over the roughly twenty-five years through to the end of Dilma's first term as president in 2014. An attempt is made to order the discussion through exploration of a series of themes, which are further broken down into key component parts. The first section presents the context, with chapters on institutional structures and the tactical behaviours exhibited by the country's diplomacy, which will be used to guide the analysis in subsequent chapters. The second focuses on issues, taking in trade policies, the rise of Brazilian foreign direct investment, security policy and multilateralism. Key relationships are covered in the final section, encompassing Latin America, the Global South, the US and China. A central contradiction is the clear sense that Brazilian foreign policy makers want to position their country as leader, but are almost pathologically averse to explicitly stating this role or accepting the implicit responsibilities. The recurrent theme is the rising confusion about what Brazil's international identity is, what it should be, and what this means Brazil can and should do. A repeated point made is that foreign policy is an important and often overloooked aspect of domestic policies. The Dilma presidency does hold an important place in the analytical narrative of this book, particularly with respect to the chapters on trade, Brazil Inc., security policy and bilateral relations with the US and China.

Sean W. Burges

Perhaps one of the most consistent themes in Brazilian foreign policy over the last century has been the drive for a seat at the main global governance decision making tables. Whether it be the Versailles Palace talks after World War One, the San Francisco discussions leading to the United Nations system or negotiations in countless international forums such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, GATT/WTO, or World Health Organization, Brazilian diplomats have devoted enormous efforts to ensuring they are given space to be active participants. This has

in Brazil in the world
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Sean W. Burges

As Brazilians frequently point out, from 1968–1973 their country experienced the sort of economic surge and staggering GDP growth rates we now associate with China. These boom years were not an accident, but the result of focused government policy designed to precipitate rapid industrialization and transformation away from a rural, agrarian economy towards an urbanized, manufacturing economic model. A stable of state industrial champions were placed at the heart of this policy push, all financed and supported by state-run banks and development institutions

in Brazil in the world

This book provides a chronological study of popular cinema in Brazil since the introduction of sound at the beginning of the 1930s. It begins the study with a brief discussion of how people understand the term 'popular cinema', particularly within a Latin American context. The focus is on films that have intentionally engaged with 'low-brow' cultural products, whose origins lie in pre-industrial traditions, and which have been enjoyed by wide sectors of the population, chiefly at the lower end of the social hierarchy. Perhaps the most important contribution of the chanchada of the 1950s was to render visible a social class within Brazil's socio-cultural landscape, and to champion the underdog, who succeeds in triumphing, through malandragem, over more powerful opponents. Brazilian popular cinema, at least until the 1980s, can be seen as a direct descendant of other shared cultural experiences. Popular film in Brazil is littered with examples of carnivalesque inversions of societal norms and established hierarchies. The 1930s witnessed the rise of the radio, the record industry and the talking cinema. The first half of the 1940s witnessed a continuation of Getúlio Vargas's quest for economic expansion based on the creation of a dignified workforce, rewarded for its efforts by improvements in the welfare system. The book also looks at three very popular cinematic sub-genres which provided a continuation of the chanchada tradition in Brazilian filmmaking: the films of Amacio Mazzaropi; those of the comedic quartet known as the Trapalhoes; and the so-called pornochanchada series of films.

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Sean W. Burges

Since the turn of the century, perhaps no country has proven as important or confusing to Brazilian foreign policy makers as China. It is both the key to Brazil’s rise and the bane to its ambitions of becoming a truly global power with real influence over structural power frameworks. While Brazil’s foreign policy establishment initially hoped that China’s rise would be a major boost for the country’s economic development, and that Beijing would join it in a Southern alliance pushing for the global governance changes sought by Brasília, events during the PT

in Brazil in the world
Sean W. Burges

Latin America more broadly and South America specifically provide the platform on which Brazilian foreign policy architects positioned their main lever for attempting to shift structural power frameworks and the pursuit of their country’s particular brand of international insertion. Central to this has been a continental strategic reality particularly propitious for the consensual hegemonic style of leadership sought by Brazil over the last quarter century. While there have been occasional armed contretemps between South American states, the most serious

in Brazil in the world
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Brasilidade and the rise of the music documentary
Tatiana Signorelli Heise

few examples of works that discuss what it means to tell the story of a musician or to use popular music as the topic of a documentary. This chapter contributes to this under-explored field by focusing on the music and musicians that constitute the subject matter of four recent Brazilian films. Although music has always played a prominent role in Brazilian popular culture, filmmakers’ interest in music is a relatively recent

in Screening songs in Hispanic and Lusophone cinema
Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Evison, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura, Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Exhumation may be defined as the legally sanctioned excavation and recovery of the remains of lawfully buried or – occasionally – cremated individuals, as distinct from forensic excavations of clandestinely buried remains conducted as part of a criminal investigation and from unlawful disinterment of human remains, commonly referred to as bodysnatching. The aim of this article is to review the role of exhumation – so defined – in the activities of CEMEL, the Medico-Legal Centre of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, in international, regional and local collaborations. Exhumations form part of routine forensic anthropology casework; scientific research in physical and forensic anthropology; and forensic casework conducted in collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Police; and are carried out as part of humanitarian investigations into deaths associated with the civil–military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. This article aims to offer a non-technical summary – with reference to international comparative information – of the role of exhumation in investigative and scientific work and to discuss developments in their historical and political context.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Sean W. Burges

Brazil has traditionally had a somewhat ambiguous view of its position in the Global South. Brazilian diplomatic discourse has episodically adopted a ‘country of the South’ rhetoric, but outside the flag of convenience role the idea of Brazil as a ‘Southern’ or developing country has never sat particularly well with the traditional national elite. Instead, the guiding logic within the Brazilian foreign policy establishment has historically been that the country’s natural affinity is with Western Europe and North America, not the Spanish-speaking republics of

in Brazil in the world
Sean W. Burges

A major theme running through this book is the sense of tension between Brazil and the US that periodically arises across a range of policy areas. Indeed, much of Brazilian foreign policy can be read as an explicit attempt to assert autonomy from the US, reflecting the reality that in no other area is the distinction between relational power and structural power so important for gaining analytical insight as the case of Brazil–US bilateral relations. Although this line of argumentation overlooks the enormous degree of pragmatic cooperation between the two

in Brazil in the world