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The essentials
Series: Politics Today
Author: Bill Jones

'Politics' with a big 'P' is concerned with how we, individuals and groups, relate to the state. This book commences with a definition of political activity with a focus on conflict, and government and democracy. Britain is, arguably, the oldest democracy in the world, though it took many centuries for it to evolve into its current 'representative' form. Conflict resolution depends on the political system involved. The book draws together all the elements of government, explaining the British system of governance, which is democracy but utilises representatives. Civil service advises ministers and carries out the day- to-day running of government. The book then describes the transformation of the British system of governance from an absolute monarchy to a representative democracy. It examines how economic changes have affected Britain over the centuries, and presents some thoughts on the absence of a modern British revolution. It presents an account of Britain's economic history, the class developments and differences, and the absence of a modern revolution despite astonishing levels of income inequality. Factors that might influence the political culture of Britain are discussed next. The book also touches upon the sources of British constitution, the process of constitutional amendments prevailing in the U.S. and Britain, current British politics, and the development of pressure groups in Britain. Finally, the history of party government in Britain, and details of the Conservative Party, Labour Party, the Social and Liberal Democrats, House of Commons, and Britain's international relations are discussed.

Bill Jones

Britain has an outward-looking stance in its contact with the rest of the world. This chapter deals with Britain's international relations, focusing on the country's key interests, the rise and decline of the British Empire, the Britain-EU relations, the Britain-US bond, the ethical foreign policy of the Labour government and the Iraq war. Britain's national interests have been conditioned by a lack of plentiful natural resources and an island status that delivers a close relationship with the sea. In 1920, the British Empire occupied a quarter of the world's landmass but after World War II most of its colonies gained independence which soon reduced the country's role to something far less exalted. The postwar British foreign policy envisaged emphasis in Europe, America and the Empire/Commonwealth. Some critics argue it would be more logical for Britain to recognise the facts of economics and geography and invest more political capital in Europe.

in British politics today
Empire, Nation Redux
Mrinalini Sinha

Davies, Alfred Zimmern, and Liberal Internationalism in Interwar Britain’, International Relations, 16: 1 (2002), 117–33; and Frank Trentmann, ‘After the Nation-State: Citizenship, Empire and Global Coordination in the New Internationalism, 1914–1930’ in F. Trentmann, K. Grant and P. Levine (eds), Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire, and Transnationalism, c. 1880

in Writing imperial histories
Andrew S. Crines and Keith Laybourn

to retain a place at the negotiation table between the United States and the Soviet Union, Bevan believed it was necessary to renounce the epicurean romanticism of unilateral nuclear disarmament. His adoption of a more realist position gained greater ethos with advocates of more moderate positions. At the conference, Bevan strove to convince the delegates of the logos of his opposition to unilateralism by arguing the conference The oratory of Aneurin Bevan 27 should not ‘decide upon the dismantling of the whole fabric of British international relations’ (Bevan

in Labour orators from Bevan to Miliband
Abstract only
Casper Sylvest

Discourse of Anarchy. See also Lucian M. Ashworth, Creating International Studies (Aldershot, 1999); David Long and Brian C. Schmidt (eds), Imperialism and Internationalism in the Discipline of International Relations (New York, 2005); Morefield, Covenants without Swords; Casper Sylvest, ‘Continuity and change in British liberal internationalism, c. 1900–1930’, Review of International Studies, 31 (2005), 263–83; Casper Sylvest, ‘Beyond the state? Pluralism and internationalism in early-twentieth century Britain’, International Relations, 21 (2007), 67–85. The literature

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Abstract only
James Whidden

military domination after Egypt had become an issue in mainstream British politics. The Suez Canal made Egypt central to British international relations and imperial security calculations. After the military occupation, there was a debate in London and Cairo on how to define the British imperial mission in Egypt: Was it merely a short-term strategic move? Were the British ‘civilisers’ engaged in a long

in Egypt
Casper Sylvest

Politics and History, 28 (1982), 380–90; Casper Sylvest, ‘Beyond the state? Pluralism and internationalism in early twentieth-century Britain’, International Relations, 21 (2007), 67–85. 140 Philosophy and internationalist ethics 11 See especially David Boucher, ‘British idealism, the state, and international relations’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 55 (1994), 671–94; Peter P. Nicholson, ‘Philosophical idealism and international politics. A reply to Dr Savigear’, British Journal of International Studies, 2 (1976), 76–83; Jeanne Morefield, Covenants without

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Casper Sylvest

of Cobden, p. 95. 89 See the analysis in Georgios Varouxakis, ‘“Patriotism”, “cosmopolitanism” and “humanity” in Victorian political thought’, European Journal of Political Theory, 5 (2006), 100–18; Casper Sylvest, ‘Beyond the state? Pluralism and internationalism in early twentieth-century Britain’, International Relations, 21 (2007), 67–85. 90 Morley, Life of Cobden, p. 601. 91 See Hamer, John Morley, chs 5–7. 92 Morley, Life of Cobden, pp. 203, 303. 93 Morley, Life of Cobden, pp. 40–1, 97. 94 Morley, Life of Cobden, pp. 530–1. In 1864, Cobden

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930