This book introduces the reader to emerging research in the broad field of 'imperial migration' and shows how this 'new' migration scholarship had developed our understanding of the British World. This is done through an analysis of some of former colonies of British Empire such as Australia, Canada, India and Zambia. The book focuses on the ideas of Reverend Thomas Malthus of how population movements presaged forces within sectors of a pre-industrial economy. The formation of national and imperial identities along racial lines in the mid-nineteenth century is covered by an analysis of the mid-nineteenth century British censuses. The clergy played a pivotal role in the importation and diffusion of a sense of British identity (and morality) to Australian churchgoers. The resistance and accommodation of Welsh Presbyterianism in Eastern Bengal is investigated through the varieties of engagement with Indian Christians and non-Christians. The book argues that Asian migration and the perceived threat it posed to the settler colonies was an issue which could unite these seemingly incongruent elements of the British World. Child migration has become a very sensitive and politically charged issue, and the book examines one of the lesser studied child migration agencies, the Middlemore Children's Emigration Homes. The book also deals with the cultural cross-currents in the construction of an Anglo-Canadian or 'Britannic' national identity. The white settlers' decisions to stay on after independence was granted to Zambia are instructive as it fills an important gap in our understanding of Africa's colonial legacy.
overall male unemployment – measured as
slightly higher in the Britishcensus sample (5.3 per cent) than in the
American data (4.5 per cent) – and so does not tell us anything about
relative disadvantage. Homing in on the differences between the bars,
though, we can see that African Americans are a little more than twice
as likely to be out of work as white Americans, the same sort of ratio
as is found between Pakistani-Bangladeshis and the white majority
in Britain. Aside from African Americans, however, the biggest American minorities fare reasonably well by British
British interpretations of midnineteenth-century racial demographics
tensions within British national and imperial identity, particularly
as they related to racial proportions in both metropole and
The Britishcensus, which has been conducted every ten
years, beginning in 1801, played a major role in allowing people to
visualise their nation in new ways. As a technology capable of
describing the nation as a whole, the census allowed people to view that
Great BritainCensuses of Population 1951–2001.
Note: 1951–81 data are largely based on place of birth; 1991 and 2001 data are based on
the ethnicity question.
similar and come from a part of the British Isles, but this is a debatable decision which further underlines the way that preconceptions come into play whenever we carve society up into numbers.
Indeed, if a longer historical view is taken, it becomes apparent
that ‘native Britishness’ is itself the product of diversity. Over the
millennia, the supposed pure-bred Brit was in fact distilled from
a mix of the
Gore Booth: An image of such politics
11 BritishCensus 1901, RG13, Piece 3748, Folio 131, p. 8.
12 Christabel Pankhurst, Unshackled, pp. 51–2.
13 The Women’s Library, London Metropolitan University, box 7: TBG,
Teresa Billington-Greig papers, undated holograph notes.
15 Manchester Central Library, M50/2/1/225, Fawcett Manuscripts, letter
from Margaret Ashton to Millicent Fawcett, 16 January 1906.
16 Daily Mail (10 January 1906).
17 For further discussion see: Sonja Tiernan, ‘Tabloid Sensationalism or
Revolutionary Feminism? The First-wave Feminist Movement
measures of poverty are shown for Britain and the US.
In the US, local poverty rates are based on comparing census income data to a local poverty
line. In the Britishcensus there is no income question, so neighbourhood poverty is
measured using a deprivation index that is based on factors such as the number of families
in the areas receiving means-tested beneﬁts. Population turnover is measured as the
proportion of residents in an area to have moved in recently.
is much less stark – the coefficients of 0.12 for diversity and 0.17 for
poverty are at least in
State, see Kilbracken,
Reminiscences , 174–6.
Census data for 1881 comes from the 1881
BritishCensus and National Index: England, Scotland, Wales,
Channel Islands, Isle of Man, and Royal Navy , CD-ROM set
(Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
agrarian communities to emigrate; areas still
locked into a pre-industrial sector of the economy that was being forced
to engage with monumental economic forces from outside. 102
The formation of national and imperial identities along
racial lines in the mid-nineteenth century is the theme of Kathrin
Levitan’s incisive analysis of the mid-nineteenth century Britishcensuses. Initiated in 1801, the British
destinations of the early Italo-Scots’, p. 54. Wilkin’s
calculation is based on 1219 male Italian adults enumerated by the Italian
authorities in their 1933 census, as opposed to the 5216 Italians recorded in
the 1931 Britishcensus, and is thus likely to overestimate levels of Fascist
Party membership. In email correspondence with the author, Wilkin states
that 539 male heads of family declared themselves as members of the PNF,
which suggests membership levels of just over ten per cent of the Italian
population in Scotland. Wilkin also confirms that in ‘certain designated
language (i.e. Cypriot Greek), cultural events (even religious), and
even intermarried. 8 The
increase in mixed villages exemplifies integration: the 1832 Ottoman
Census recorded 172 mixed villages; 9 in 1858 the British consul estimated 239; 10 in 1891, in the second
Britishcensus, there were 346 out of 702 villages. 11
Ottoman Cypriot society was divided along class