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Author: Vanessa Heggie

Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

David Hardiman

Shaw described as ‘horrible lies as to the work of the hospital’. For some months, hardly anyone came for treatment. Lily Shaw commented that ‘The evil influence of this ex-pastor is felt in almost every part of the mission.’ 1 In 1925 a British doctor, Frank Read, took charge at Lusadiya. His wife was a qualified nurse. When the couple arrived, they found that the medical work was in disarray. The

in Missionaries and their medicine
Abstract only
Quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain
Lisa Rosner

By focusing on a particular group of British doctors, those practising with the Royal Navy, this chapter maintains that the collective identity of these physicians in the early nineteenth century was shaped by how they acquired their first professional experience in the Mediterranean. It was an established practice for navy doctors to spend the first years of their professional trajectory in the two key British possessions in the region: Gibraltar and Malta. There, they learned to regard quarantine as a useless measure – in conformity with dominant British anti-contagionism – despite the fact that it was systematically applied. Sustaining an opposite view was often incompatible with pursuing a career within the navy. At the same time, quarantine was also being used by the British medical press as a sort of “crash-test” to define what “professionalism” should mean in the medical corpus. The press highlighted the contradiction which existed between the theoretical medical views prevalent in Britain and the routine practices of navy doctors on site in the Mediterranean outposts, and exposed this as an example of the lack of professionalism.

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Julian M. Simpson

pay and conditions on offer in the NHS and the decisions of these graduates to migrate. Thousands of British doctors left the country during this period rather than take up the jobs that their overseas-​trained counterparts ended up doing. In order to appreciate the impact of South Asian GPs on their field of medicine and on the NHS it is important to have a sense of how precarious the future of general practice was during this period, how it was reinvented and established itself as a core part of the NHS and to acknowledge the degree to which it remained an

in Migrant architects of the NHS
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Julian M. Simpson

Doctors in the National Health Service, published in 1980, showed for instance that 60 per cent of UK/​Eire qualified doctors felt 127 Discrimination and general practice127 that Asian doctors were less competent than British doctors.11 Informal interviews carried out in hospitals in the course of the same study included an encounter with four members of a district management team who expressed the view that: there was considerable prejudice on the part of some consultants against coloured applicants, which went well beyond any ideas about British qualifications

in Migrant architects of the NHS
Caroline Rusterholz

Women were also present, and chief among them was the American birth control activist Margaret Sanger. The British women who took part in these international conferences were strongly feminist and envisaged birth control as a means of improving women's health. At the 1930 Zurich International Conference on Birth Control, female British doctors, alongside female German, Swedish and American doctors, shaped the debate in favour of the medicalisation of the issue. They drew on their practical experience acquired at national levels to move away from moral considerations

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
Rima D. Apple

. They trained nurses who wanted not only to work in healthcare but also to serve their country. Protestant missionaries set up hospitals and training schools on the island in part to undermine the position of the Catholic Church. Thus in this case, for better or for worse, nurses served to transform healthcare and society. In Australia, the goal was to ‘civilise’ the Aboriginals, who were described as ‘savages’. Aboriginal healthcare and midwifery practices were discounted. With the presence of plague in Hong Kong, British doctors and nurses insisted that only

in Colonial caring
Wagner the Wehr-wolf, Sweeney Todd and the limits of human responsibility
Joseph Crawford

profession, in favour of a much more capacious interpretation of madness which included far more than just the raving and violent convulsions of the furiosus . The McNaghten rules were an expression of this change, as such a ruling – that individuals could know full well who they were and what they were doing when they committed an act of murder, and yet still be found not guilty by virtue of insanity – was able to pass successfully through the court only because the weight of expert medical opinion was already behind it. Indeed, by 1843, many British doctors had already

in In the company of wolves
Irish doctors and the British armed forces, 1922–45
Steven O’Connor

1934 – when the British Army was allotted £20 million primarily to increase its peacetime establishment – saw Irish numbers joining the RAMC rise steadily for the remainder of the 1930s. 10 This was in direct contrast to the small number of British doctors coming forward for commissions. Thus overall the RAMC continued to experience shortages and as late as 1939 it was 210

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45