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Eric Richards

16 British emigration and the Malthus model Spanning the transition The life of Robert Malthus (1766–1834) spanned the decades in Britain of the rapid transition towards mass international migration. This became manifest only towards the end of his life. He was keenly aware of the extraordinary reproductive feats of the American colonists and the potential of new lands in the colonies. He was also well-informed about the substantial migrations from particular regions of the British Isles at the end of the old century. But Malthus was not much engaged with the

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

substance, at least on the British mainland. Types of migration and the disengagement with the land Malthus’s usefulness in explaining the phenomenon of British emigration in the nineteenth century is limited. This was, after all, a massive inter-continental transfer of people which reached a crescendo in the middle decade of the century. Furthermore, it

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
The British case, 1750–1900
Author: Eric Richards

Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.

This book introduces the reader to emerging research in the broad field of 'imperial migration' and shows how this 'new' migration scholarship had developed our understanding of the British World. This is done through an analysis of some of former colonies of British Empire such as Australia, Canada, India and Zambia. The book focuses on the ideas of Reverend Thomas Malthus of how population movements presaged forces within sectors of a pre-industrial economy. The formation of national and imperial identities along racial lines in the mid-nineteenth century is covered by an analysis of the mid-nineteenth century British censuses. The clergy played a pivotal role in the importation and diffusion of a sense of British identity (and morality) to Australian churchgoers. The resistance and accommodation of Welsh Presbyterianism in Eastern Bengal is investigated through the varieties of engagement with Indian Christians and non-Christians. The book argues that Asian migration and the perceived threat it posed to the settler colonies was an issue which could unite these seemingly incongruent elements of the British World. Child migration has become a very sensitive and politically charged issue, and the book examines one of the lesser studied child migration agencies, the Middlemore Children's Emigration Homes. The book also deals with the cultural cross-currents in the construction of an Anglo-Canadian or 'Britannic' national identity. The white settlers' decisions to stay on after independence was granted to Zambia are instructive as it fills an important gap in our understanding of Africa's colonial legacy.

Late twentieth-century British emigration and global identities – the end of the ‘British World’?
A. James Hammerton

-twentieth century trends of globalisation. But all of them illustrate ways in which British emigration has undergone significant changes since the heyday of the immediate post-war emigration schemes to Commonwealth countries of settlement. The old loyalties, which comforted post-war British migrants that they were ‘moving to another part of Britain’ (albeit often shaken loyalties after arrival when they confronted

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Kent Fedorowich

November 1909, was the only British emigration society which dealt exclusively with former military personnel. Though lacking the reputation and connections of the earlier pioneering agencies, such as the East End Emigration Fund, the Salvation Army and the Self-Help Emigration Society, it sought to establish its presence through a determined propaganda and lobbying campaign. A vocal proponent of imperial

in Unfit for heroes
Abstract only
British emigration and the construction of Anglo-Canadian privilege
Lisa Chilton

British emigration promoters, and the fact that British emigrants were not necessarily always desirable immigrants was the focus of regular attention, even within pro-empire circles, throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 9 In fact, concerns about the poor quality of British immigrants (defined in terms of health, class, morals, political perspectives, and work-related skills) featured regularly in official

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Migrants of the 1970s
A. James Hammerton

2 The decline of British privilege: migrants of the 1970s A migration of rising expectations At first glance the expanding rates of British emigration and mobility, which had marked the immediate postwar generation, seem to have continued with little significant change into the 1970s. Britons were barely less inclined to leave the country after 1970 than in the intense peak years of the later 1960s, especially to those countries like Australia and New Zealand, which continued to offer subsidised fares to eligible families and individuals. In 1966 British

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Edna Bradlow

and the official British emigration scheme. After the First World War it was believed that the United Kingdom had a surplus of women and the dominions an abnormal shortage. There already existed in South Africa an organisation, the South African Colonisation Society, dedicated to bringing ‘suitable’ British women to South Africa. This was absorbed in 1919 by the Society for the Oversea Settlement of

in Emigrants and empire
The politics of Empire settlement, 1900–1922
Keith Williams

successful. The considerable volume of British emigration in the nineteenth century owed more to individual or family initiative than to state planning or directive. 1 In the 1880s recession and social unrest in the United Kingdom stimulated the most vigorous campaign since the 1820s to secure state assistance and to promote land settlement within the Empire, but this agitation came to precious little and the

in Emigrants and empire