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The inconsequential possession

Cyprus' importance was always more imagined than real and was enmeshed within widely held cultural signifiers and myths. This book explores the tensions underlying British imperialism in Cyprus. It presents a study that follows Cyprus' progress from a perceived imperial asset to an expendable backwater. The book explains how the Union Jack came to fly over the island and why after thirty-five years the British wanted it lowered. It fills a gap in the existing literature on the early British period in Cyprus and challenges the received and monolithic view that British imperial policy was based primarily or exclusively on strategic-military considerations. The book traces the links between England/Britain and Cyprus since Richard Coeur de Lion and situates these links within a tradition of Romantic adventure, strategic advantage, spiritual imperialism and a sense of possession. The British wanted to revitalise western Asia by establishing informal control over it through the establishment of Cyprus as a place d'armes. Because the British did not find Cyprus an 'Eldorado' of boundless wealth, they did not invest the energy or funds to 'renew' it. British economic policy in Cyprus was contradictory; it rendered Cyprus economically unviable. Hellenic nationalism, propelled by the failure of British social and economic policies, upturned the multicultural system and challenged the viability of British rule. Situating Cyprus within British imperial strategy shows that the island was useless and a liability.

The Empire of Clouds in north-east India

In 1841, the Welsh sent their first missionary, Thomas Jones, to evangelise the tribal peoples of the Khasi Hills of north-east India. This book follows Jones from rural Wales to Cherrapunji, the wettest place on earth and now one of the most Christianised parts of India. It is about the piety and practices, the perceptions and prejudices of people in early nineteenth century Wales. The book is also about the ways in which the religious ambitions of those same people operated upon the lives and ideas of indigenous societies of the distant Khasi Hills of north-eastern India. It foregrounds broader political, scientific, racial and military ideologies that mobilised the Khasi Hills into an interconnected network of imperial control. Its themes are universal: crises of authority, the loneliness of geographical isolation, sexual scandal, greed and exploitation, personal and institutional dogma, individual and group morality. In analysing the individual lives that flash in and out of this history, the book is a performance within the effort to break down the many dimensions of distance that the imperial scene prescribes. It pays attention to a 'networked conception of imperial interconnection'. The book discusses Jones's evangelising among the Khasis as well as his conflicts with church and state authority. It also discusses some aspects of the micro-politics of mission and state in the two decades immediately following Thomas Jones's death. While the Welsh missionary impact was significant, its 'success' or indeed its novelty, needs to be measured against the pre-existing activities of British imperialists.

During the Second World War, over 9,000 men from several colonies, protectorates and mandate territories fought for the British Empire. These forces represented a significant shift in naval policy towards the recruitment of colonial manpower at a time of distinct pressures on British imperialism. This book examines the impact of colonial naval forces, by analyzing the 'official' and 'subaltern' sources in the United Kingdom, the Caribbean, East Africa, Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. The Trinidad Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (TRNVR) was formed to defend the island's oil supply to British oil-fired ships. The book also looks at the experience of the Cayman Islanders who volunteered to serve in the TRNVR. An East African case study focuses on Kenya and Zanzibar before and after the Second World War. The Kenya Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (KRNVR) was the first colonial naval force in the British Empire; local naval forces were also formed in Zanzibar and Tanganyika. In the analysis of Southeast Asia and the Malacca Straits, the book discusses, inter alia, origins of Malaya's naval forces, and analyses the issues of force expansion and 'Malaysianisation' during the Malayan Emergency and decolonisation. There was an initial reluctance on the Navy to recruit the Chinese, but with their overwhelming majority in Hong Kong, their enlistment in the Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (HKRNVR) was unavoidable. The post-war evolution of Hong Kong's naval force as it adjusted to the roles of Communist China's emergence and Britain's declining world are also examined.

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surrounding Cyprus’s occupation and its administration between 1878 and 1915 were characterised by conceptual and organisational confusion, resulting from conceiving the future strategic and economic value of the island in a distant past and an overly optimistic future. This book has examined the tensions underlying British imperialism in Cyprus: its place in the imperial imagination and

in British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915

The ideology of British imperialism is commonly defined in terms also culturally associated with masculinity. The dispensing of justice and reason, racial superiority, loyalty to peer groups and to the nation, heroism, enterprise, patriotic aggression, militarism, all seem

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
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Empire. Created within a period of just eight years, these forces represented a significant shift in naval policy towards the recruitment of colonial manpower at a time of distinct internal and external pressures on British imperialism. This prompts a reconsideration of ‘imperial overstretch’ as a concern for naval and colonial officials in the interwar years, and how it forced a cultural change in

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
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idealism, all lived in the tissue of imperial praxis. This is not to say, of course, that British imperialism was not some species of systematised territorialism founded on core precepts of political, military, cultural, religious and economic policy and implementation. But its coercive power was not always brutally manifest. As Thomas Jones well knew, the perception of authority rather than the might of

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism

intentions mark transitions in scientific, commercial, geo-political, gendered and religious ideologies. Most of all, they complicate a version of British imperialism that pits state against church, science against industry, pragmatism against idealism. The purposes of the magistrate, the artilleryman, the geologist or the evangelist are rarely mutually exclusive; they are more often than

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
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seen for ninety years. My forebears were hardly the coerced captives of Colley’s imperial scenarios, but in everyday ways were subject to imperial trauma, ‘the sporadic powerlessness of the apparently all-powerful’. 7 In out of the way places, they were akin to the micro-historian’s ‘little peoples’. 8 A history of British imperialism in north-east India can also contribute to the

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
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Jones, and I have deliberately chosen the most marginal and far-flung place to set my study; yet through the historical circumstances of my family’s history, the place has also chosen me. Standing metaphorically at the side of the road leading from the plains to the hills provides an uncommon vantage point for a reconsideration of nineteenth-century British imperialism in north-east India. Yet the hills

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism