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Editor: Saul Dubow

The history and sociology of science has not been well developed in southern Africa as compared to India, Australia or Latin America. This book deals with case studies drawn from South Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Mozambique and Mauritius, and examines the relationship between scientific claims and practices, and the exercise of colonial power. European intellectuals saw in Africa images of their own prehistory and societal development. The book reveals the work of the Swiss naturalist and anthropologist Henri Junod. The relative status of Franco-Mauritian, Creoles and Indo-Mauritian peasants was an important factor in gaining knowledge of and access to canes. After the Boer War, science was one of the regenerating forces, and the British Association found it appropriate to hold its 1905 meetings in the Southern African subcontinent. White farmers in the Cape Colony in the late nineteenth century often greeted with suspicion the enumeration of livestock and crop. The book focuses on the connections between the apartheid state's capacity to count and to control. Apartheid statecraft included aspirations of totalising modes of racialised knowledge. Included in the theme of state rationality and techniques of domination is the specialized use of dogs by police in apprehending black alleged criminals. The book discusses the Race Welfare Society, which turned to eugenics for a blueprint on how to cultivate a healthy and productive white population. However, George Gale and Sidney and Emily Kark advocated socialised medicine, and had a genuine desire to promote the broad health needs of Africans.

The British Association in South Africa, 1905 and 1929
Saul Dubo

Setting On 15 August 1905 a party of some 200 official members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science arrived in Cape Town on board the Union Castle Liner, Saxon. The voyage had been pleasantly uneventful and the visitors occupied their time with an extensive programme of lectures and discussions, games and entertainments, and scientific experiments

in Science and society in southern Africa
The relations of the 3rd Earl of Rosse with scientific institutions in Britain and Ireland
Simon Schaffer

he could never spend more than three months in London, so had not bought a permanent town-house. In any case, the long winter nights were those when his attendance was essential at the telescopes in Birr.3 Despite the obstacles, his theatres included the peripatetic British Association for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1831, and the Royal Society of London, of which he served as President from 1848 until 1854. At least one jaundiced Fellow of the Royal Society did complain that, however socially and scientifically eminent, their new President was nothing

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
Charles Mollan

/05/2014 10:39:36 164 William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse Worcester, Boyle, Cavendish, Talbot, and Rosse, in science. The last named may be regarded as the great mechanic of the peerage, a man who, if he had not been born a peer, would probably have taken the highest rank as an inventor … The great Rosse telescope, of his own fabrication, is certainly the most extraordinary instrument of the kind that has yet been produced.10 As Simon Schaffer has described (p. 305), William Parsons was President of the entire meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
Wolfgang Steinicke

36-inch in the winter 1844–45. Of course, Robinson pushed the matter too. Details of the casting and mounting of the mighty specula are given in Chapter 6. Inevitably it had to be a ‘transit’ telescope rather than an equatorially mounted instrument. Its final shape was already apparent in August 1843, when it was shown to participants of the 13th annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Cork. One visitor was William Lassell (1799–1880), a lifelong admirer of Lord Rosse’s achievements and an eminent constructor of large

in William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse
Vanessa Heggie

dedicated to sports medicine. In the early 1960s ‘special editions’ of other journals did consider sports medicine; in 1963 arrangements were made for a special issue of the Physical Education Association’s journal, Physical Education , and offers of possible ‘special editions’ also came from the medical journal Practitioner . 86 But in 1964 BAS(E)M began to publish the Bulletin of the British Association of Sport and Medicine , which changed its name in December 1968 to the British Journal of Sports Medicine ( BJSM) . The shift in name mirrors a shift in content

in A history of British sports medicine
Abstract only
Society life in the 1870s
Henry A. McGhie

British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1843 (after being discussed at its 1842 meeting). This contained some important principles: the law of priority (that the first published scientific name for a species had to be used); the adoption of Linnaeus’s binomial system, which gives each species a unique two-part scientific name consisting of a genus and species (Turdus merula for the Blackbird, for example); and that Linnaeus’s twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae (1766) was the starting point of scientific nomenclature, so no names could pre-date 1766

in Henry Dresser and Victorian ornithology
Vanessa Heggie

development of the Olympic Village system; the social and financial challenges of the ‘austerity games’ did not allow all these new services to be mirrored in post-war London, although, as this chapter shows, the Medical Committee certainly sought to bring cutting-edge medical practice to international athletes. The chapter ends in 1952, with the formation of Britain’s first sports medicine organisation – the British Association of Sport and Medicine (BAS(E)M), founded by, among others, Adolphe Abrahams and Sir Arthur Porritt ( Box 5 ). Clearly, this was a particularly

in A history of British sports medicine
Social progressivism and the transformation of provincial medicine
Michael Brown

including ‘Physiology’, ‘Dreams’, ‘Hygiene’ and, most popularly of all, ‘Phrenology’.131 However, while such institutions may have provided a space for the display of medical knowledge they were not the locus of its production. By this period, medical practitioners had largely abandoned such broad intellectual arenas for more specialist associational spaces. Nowhere was this gradual withdrawal more apparent than with medical The march of intellect 141 involvement in the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). The BAAS originated from the suggestion

in Performing medicine
Author: Vanessa Heggie

Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.