exception of Ceylon.
While reorganisation, and indeed modernisation, within the
Caribbean was labelled ‘civilianisation’, police forces
essentially remained within the same colonial mould. Policing the end of
the Empire in the BritishCaribbean was as fraught with difficulties as
it was in the rest of the Empire, although the disturbances that took
place in the early part of the twentieth century were not as
The transition from slavery to
freedom in the BritishCaribbean raised, for the colonial economic
and political elite, the question of exercising control over the
free labour force. The challenge of emancipation for the former
slaveholding class was to retain dominance over the ex-slaves
without the extensive coercive powers which slavery had allowed
Re-examining the labour matrix in the BritishCaribbean 1750 to 1850
The two major labour systems which dominated the BritishCaribbean between
the middle of the eighteenth century and the middle of the nineteenth century
were the systems of West African enslavement and Indian indentureship. These
were the most dominant modes of securing labour, but playing a secondary role
during this period were also systems which involved the use of paid labour to
varying degrees. This period was also characterised by the use of the hiring system,
The Caribbean Post's treatment of West Indian femininity reflected the growing significance of the beauty contest in the British Caribbean. Phyllis Woolford, 'Miss British Caribbean' of 1948 was pictured on the cover of the Post, epitomising modern Caribbean womanhood. This book examines the links between beauty and politics in the Anglophone Caribbean, providing a cultural history of Caribbean beauty competitions. It discusses the earliest Caribbean beauty competition, 'Miss Jamaica', launched in 1929 on the cusp of Jamaican cultural blossoming, and explores the emerging radical feminist voices amidst the cultural revolution. The 'Miss Trinidad' beauty competition, started in 1946, doubled as the search for an annual 'Carnival Queen', and represented the power of the moneyed white elite against an emergent black political force. The image that emerges of Barbados's 'Carnival Queen' contest is of a decidedly bourgeois contest, in which the 'creme de la creme' of Marcus Jordan's account were the most esteemed 'young ladies' of middle-class society. It examines the institutionalisation of the 'Ten Types' model and provides examples of copycat competitions elsewhere in the Caribbean. The 'Ten Types - Miss Ebony' contest was championed as a lesson in Jamaican racial democracy for other, less advanced, West Indian audiences. The book highlights the radical vantage point of exiled Trinidadian-born communist-feminist Claudia Jones who launched a Caribbean beauty competition in London. The burgeoning black beauty culture of London was imagined, through the West Indian Gazette as a pragmatic means of acquiring the respectable appearance that was 'race-pride' work.
The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.
The British, the Americans, the War and the move to Federation
favourable land leases in Jamaica, Trinidad and St Lucia on which to
build bases and from which to patrol the gulf of Paria and the eastern
entry to the Panama Canal and secure the protection of the southern and
eastern sea board of the United States. The agreement gave the Americans not only
the strategic but also the political foothold needed to legitimate their
interests in the BritishCaribbean and to voice their views on the
Bailey’s feminist-nationalist critique of Jamaican national
identity, this chapter establishes the context for the origins of a Caribbean
beauty competition before the Second World War. Finally it considers
the new beauty competitions which emerged immediately after the war
j 15 J
imagining caribbean womanhood
and only for a short time: ‘Miss BritishCaribbean’, and ‘Miss Kingston’.
These new competitions projected modified formulations of femininity,
through the performance of cultured, modern beauty by women of colour
that would signal the islands’ emergence from
research was needed to transform sugar from foodstuff to industrial starting compound. Laboratory investigation was endowed with the power to reverse the long decline of the Caribbean.
This chapter will show how concerns at the Colonial Office around 1940 about the economic future of the British West Indies were expressed as concerns about the future of the sugar industry. While distress was not limited to workers in this industry, and sugar was no longer the principal export of all BritishCaribbean colonies, it was conditions in this industry that
related to manufacturing, medicine and agriculture. The Colonial Microbiological Research Institute (CMRI) was the only institute for tropical microbiology in the British Colonial Empire. The two laboratories in Trinidad were intended to be a tangible, visible intervention to cultivate industrial development in the BritishCaribbean at a point when the Colonial Office mostly offered advice. The debates of the 1940s on the best way to encourage economic diversification revealed a tendency amongst British officials to discourage the adoption of measures that were too
The culture of free trade versus the culture of anti-slavery in Britain and the British Caribbean, 1840–50
One might well say that Britain lost
its soul to its sweet tooth in 1846. For in that year of the cheap sugar
loaf as well as the cheap bread loaf, the House of Commons by a
comfortable majority slated for execution the protective duties that had
long given BritishCaribbean sugar a huge advantage in the home market.
Before 1833 those duties had of course protected a slave-based system of