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Breandan Gregory

British India as spectacle India was unique in the British experience of Empire, not just because of the scale of the enterprise or the importance of India to the British economy but also because the British consciously felt that they were inheriting an imperial mantle. Although British administrators in the nineteenth century followed Mill

in Acts of supremacy
A case study in psychiatry and colonial rule
Waltraud Ernst

time. 5 Firstly, twenty or so asylums for the whole of India’s vast area and population is a small figure when set against the estimated ninety psychiatric institutions in the British Isles in the 1850s. Secondly, the number of asylum inmates in British India was miniscule compared to the overall size of the population at the time and contrasts markedly with the very high percentage of people

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
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The British Empire and the stage, 1790–1930

Imperialist discourse interacted with regional and class discourses. Imperialism's incorporation of Welsh, Scots and Irish identities, was both necessary to its own success and one of its most powerful functions in terms of the control of British society. Most cultures have a place for the concept of heroism, and for the heroic figure in narrative fiction; stage heroes are part of the drama's definition of self, the exploration and understanding of personal identity. Theatrical and quasi-theatrical presentations, whether in music hall, clubroom, Shakespeare Memorial Theatre or the streets and ceremonial spaces of the capital, contributed to that much-discussed national mood. This book examines the theatre as the locus for nineteenth century discourses of power and the use of stereotype in productions of the Shakespearean history canon. It discusses the development of the working class and naval hero myth of Jack Tar, the portrayal of Ireland and the Irish, and the portrayal of British India on the spectacular exhibition stage. The racial implications of the ubiquitous black-face minstrelsy are focused upon. The ideology cluster which made up the imperial mindset had the capacity to re-arrange and re-interpret history and to influence the portrayal of the tragic or comic potential of personal dilemmas. Though the British may have prided themselves on having preceded America in the abolition of slavery and thus outpacing Brother Jonathan in humanitarian philanthropy, abnegation of hierarchisation and the acceptance of equality of status between black and white ethnic groups was not part of that achievement.

The Irish in Punjab, 1881–1921

The British empire was actually an amalgam of Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English empires. Punjab, 'the pride of British India', attracted the cream of the Indian Civil Service (ICS), many of the most influential of whom were Irish. Some of these men, along with Irish viceroys, were inspired by their Irish backgrounds to ensure security of tenure for the Punjabi peasant, besides developing vast irrigation schemes which resulted in the province becoming India's most affluent. This book aims to ascertain whether backgrounds of Irish public servants in Punjab, and that of Irish viceroys in dealing with Punjab affairs, engendered attitudes which were so different. The nub of the matter is whether an Irish background influenced public servants in their duties, whether or not they thought themselves primarily as British or Irish. The first part of the book deals with three Indian public services: the ICS, the Indian Medical Service (IMS) and the Indian Public Works Department (PWD). The social, religious, ethnic and educational backgrounds of Irish recruits these services and the reasons behind the remarkable increase in Irish recruitment are then discussed. British and Irish public servants influenced domestic Indian politics, especially in the admission of Indians to the very services dominated by the British. Perhaps the long-term but impermanent commitment of Irish people to the furtherance of British colonial aims merits a more apt designation, one perhaps less pejorative than 'collaborator'. Twentieth-century contemporaries made connections between north-west India and Northern Ireland by dubbing Punjab the 'Ulster of India'.

Education in the British Empire, 1830–1910
Author: Felicity Jensz

Nineteenth-century evangelical Protestant missionary groups commonly assumed that they were the most apt providers of education to non-Europeans in British colonies. Christian schooling was deemed imperative for modernising societies to withstand secularising forces. This significant study examines this assumption by drawing on key moments in the development of missionary education from the 1830s to the beginning of the twentieth century. The book is the first to survey the changing ideologies behind establishing mission schools across the spectrum of the British Empire. It examines the Negro Education Grant in the West Indies, the Aborigines Select Committee (British Settlements), missionary conferences in 1860 and 1910 as well as drawing on local voices and contexts from Southern Africa, British India and Sri Lanka to demonstrate the changing expectations for, engagement with and ideologies circulating around mission schools resulting from government policies and local responses. By the turn of the twentieth century, many colonial governments had encroached upon missionary schooling to such an extent that the symbiosis that had allowed missionary groups autonomy at the beginning of the century had morphed into an entanglement that secularised mission schools. The spread of ‘Western modernity’ through mission schools in British colonies affected local cultures and societies. It also threatened Christian religious moral authority, leading missionary societies by the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 to question the ambivalent legacy of missionary schooling, and to fear for the morality and religious sensibilities of their pupils, and indeed for morality within Britain and the Empire.

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India in history textbooks
Kathryn Castle

age, cites the history of British India as the supreme example of the imperial ethos at work. Both junior and senior texts of his contemporaries felt obliged to describe with varying degrees of wonder, pride, and responsible scholarship how a small island nation had managed to gain control of vast territories and peoples, and export, with significant success, British values and institutions. This was

in Britannia’s children
Law between semicolonial China and the Raj
Emily Whewell

As Britain consolidated its authority over Upper Burma from 1885, the Indian government turned towards British India’s northern frontier and northwestern China. Xinjiang was a province of the Qing Empire, but as a region bounded by the mountains and vast stretches of desert, it was also a place that topographically defied strong imperial control. 1 Russia had a growing presence in the north of the province and both the Indian government and Foreign Office viewed a British presence in Xinjiang as an essential bulwark against the Czarist Empire. British Indian

in Law across imperial borders
Florence D’Souza

the adult working classes. The foundation in 1824 of the Westminster Review was another platform for propagating the Utilitarian creed. He took twelve years (1806–17) to compile his major work, The History of British India , 1 which was published in London in 1817, in three quarto volumes, based on published reports of Parliamentary Proceedings, the East India Company records and other

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
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The scattered Irish
Patrick O’Leary

, the following chapters will testify to their considerable influence on the life and history of Punjab, the province regarded as British India’s ‘greatest success story’. 9 The effect of their sway extended, in time, to the geopolitics of the countries – India and Pakistan – which partitioned that province. 10 That influence on a country in

in Servants of the empire
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Margaret Harkness on conjectural history and utilitarian philosophy
Lisa C. Robertson

Harkness on conjectural history 11 •• Through the mill: Margaret Harkness on conjectural history and utilitarian philosophy Lisa C. Robertson When Horace Hayman Wilson, first Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford, penned his preface to the fourth edition of James Mill’s compendious The History of British India (HBI), he attested to the crucial role of personal knowledge in historical work. This intimate cultural knowledge, Wilson explains, ‘enables the historian to judge of the real value of that evidence to which he must have recourse for matters

in Margaret Harkness