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Humanity and relief in war, Britain 1870–1914

The history of relief work is in its infancy. This book draws on new archival research to reveal the priorities of nineteenth-century relief workers, and the legacies of their preoccupations for relief work today. It first explores the inauguration of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War (NAS) at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 under the figurehead of Loyd Lindsay. Then, the book sees the revival of the NAS for work in the Balkans during a period of nationalist violence and Ottoman counter-insurgency which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. It also follows the staff of relief committees as they dispensed aid in British colonial wars. The book examines the critiques of British policy in the Boer War (1899-1902) emanating from intersecting circles of Quakers, New Liberals and ethicists, and considers these groups' offer of aid to Boer civilians. Further, the book concentrates on the methodologies of relief for Boer inmates of British concentration camps in South Africa and on the implications of this relief for its intended recipients during and after the war. It concentrates on aid to British soldiers. The book closes by tracing continuities in vocational practices and dispositions to emerging areas of concern in the post-war period, in particular child welfare, and briefly considers their implication for relief work today.

Relief, reconstruction and disputes over civilian suffering in the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902
Rebecca Gill

veteran of Armenian relief. Though not at the time a member of the Religious Society of Friends, she was willing to act under its auspices to offer ‘loving service’ among war victims. 26 The Boer women and children internees of British concentration camps now became the subject of considerable investigation and intervention. Their illnesses, emotional states

in Calculating compassion
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Religion against the South African War
Greg Cuthbertson

, Canon Charles Gore, on infant mortality in British concentration camps in South Africa. 86 Significantly, however, there was little general protest from non-conformist ministers in the correspondence pages of the British Weekly. The divisions in nonconformity during the South African War became even more pronounced in the ‘Khaki

in The South African War reappraised
Open Access (free)
Pacifism and feminism in Victorian Britain
Heloise Brown

discussion of responses to the Anglo-Boer war of 1899–1902, because this was a crucial phase for the feminist movement. With the AngloBoer war, women became more prominent in public and political life: Millicent Garrett Fawcett led the first all-female government inspectorate into conditions in the British concentration camps in South Africa, while the British government deported Emily Hobhouse from the Transvaal for her attempts to publicise atrocities in the camps. Women’s attitudes to war thus became an increasingly public question at this time, not least because of

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Abstract only
Calculating compassion in war
Rebecca Gill

example, Emily Hobhouse. Having exposed the levels of civilian distress in British concentration camps during the Boer War, she was disappointed to find South African politicians turning her testimony of Boer suffering to political account in an era of escalating Afrikaner nationalism. 20 Yet, whatever the unlooked-for consequences, she never regretted her interventions. 21 She remained confident that her work constituted

in Calculating compassion
The wider impact of the South African War
Donal Lowry

been sent to the government, in addition to the earlier appeals. Also in 1901, the Frauenhilfsbund mobilised financial and political support for destitute Boer inmates in British concentration camps. These movements fostered an almost uncontrollable popular anti-Britishness in Germany, which in the new century encouraged a growing British conviction that Germany posed a threat to their

in The South African War reappraised
Carol Polsgrove

estimated only seventy-five of the average 250 present most of the time were ‘coloured people’. Padmore led off with the provocative claim that African colonial subjects lived lives no better than Jews’ lives in Hitler’s Germany. Wallace Johnson described his own incarceration in a ‘British concentration camp’. Makonnen said that the British Empire had been built by pirates, not

in Ending British rule in Africa
Salutations from a Dutch queen’s supporters in a British South Africa
Susie Protschky

increasingly active in charity and welfare organisations, where their social roles as carers were given legitimate community expression. Boer women’s collective experience of itinerancy or incarceration in British concentration camps during the South African War, and of organised resistance and charitable interventions to alleviate this suffering, provided both the will and the skills for later political

in Crowns and colonies
Leonie Holthaus

. 40 The British newspaper the Manchester Guardian , a meeting point for liberal internationalists and socialists, inaugurated and led the public opposition to the war, which further polarised British liberals. 41 L. T. Hobhouse, John A. Hobson and Emily Hobhouse, a peace and welfare activist, Hobhouse’s beloved sister and one of the Manchester Guardian ’s South African correspondents, all linked liberal auto-criticism to contemporary anti-war arguments. Emily Hobhouse testified about the British concentration camps from a feminist perspective and was among the

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks