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An introduction

History in the historiographical sense is made by us, not by people in the past, nor by the record of their actions. This book facilitates the critical reading of works of history. It looks at the historical profession, its predilections and traditions. The Whig interpretation of history has been chosen to illustrate the relationship between historiography and a prevalent culture because of its central role in the period when the historical profession began to establish itself in England and because of its continuing popular and political influence. The book acts as a guide to reading historiographical texts, looking at the relationship between 'facts' and 'theories', and at 'meta-narrative' and causation. The book examines the issues of planning and structuring in the process of writing an essay. It offers a guide to the writing of academic history at undergraduate level and to the skills involved, and contrasts this with the non-academic uses of history. The book talks about some gender historians who viewed gender identities as expressions of social change within a wider society. It explores the unique fascination that the Nazis has exercised on both academic and popular historiography, along with the allied study of the Holocaust. The book also explores the works of Marxist historians associated with the Communist Party Historians' Group and considers the earlier approaches to cultural history, as influences on the Group, and the development of newer theoretical positions that developed both out of and in opposition to Marxism. The developments in British historiography are discussed.

Patronage, the information revolution and colonial government
Author: Zoë Laidlaw

The fascination with imperialism, in all its aspects, shows no sign of abating, and the 'Studies in Imperialism' series continues to lead the way in encouraging the widest possible range of studies in the field. This book makes a significant contribution to the study of historical networking. While the book covers the thirty years after Waterloo, it is particularly concerned with changes to colonial governance in the 1830s. In pursuing these themes, the book engages with broad questions about British imperialism in the early nineteenth century. It provides the opportunity to bring together new imperial and British historiography, to examine the somewhat neglected area of colonial governance, where 'governance' implies a concern with processes of government and administration. The first part of the book introduces, and then dissects, some of the networks of patronage and information which were critical to colonial governance. It examines changes in Colonial Office organisation and policies between 1815 and 1836. The second part deals with the development, implementation and effects of networks of personal communications in New South Wales and the Cape Colony up to 1845. The private correspondence of governors with their immediate subordinates within the colonies demonstrates the continual assessment and re-assessment of metropolitan politics, imperial policies, and the reception of colonial lobbyists. The final part of the book focuses on Britain, considering the impact of a changing information order on colonial governance, and examines how colonial and metropolitan concerns converged and cross-fertilised.

Tony Kushner

context and place identity within it. Local Jewish studies, especially in Britain, face a triple marginality. First, there is the antipathy, patronisation or indifference of those working within ‘mainstream’ British or English history against minority studies. Second, within global Jewish studies similar attitudes towards the ‘local’ can be detected as within British historiography. It is intensified within Jewish studies through the perceived marginality of British Jewish history. Lacking either the religious ‘giants’ of the continent or the experience of the modern

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
Union and separation in two kingdoms
Editors: David Edwards and Simon Egan

Increased Irish-Scottish contact was one of the main consequences of the Ulster plantation (1610), yet it remains under-emphasised in the general accounts of the period. The Scottish involvement in early-to-mid seventeenth-century Ireland was both more and less pervasive than has been generally understood, just as the Irish role in western Scotland and the Isles has been mostly underappreciated.

Despite growing academic interest in English, Scottish, Irish and Welsh inter-connections sparked by the ‘New British History’ debate, the main emphasis in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century ‘British’ historiography has been on Anglo-Scottish and Anglo-Irish relations respectively. Exploring the Irish-Scottish world brings important new perspectives into play, helping to identify some of the limits of England’s Anglicising influence in the northern and western ‘British Isles’ and the often slight basis on which the Stuart pursuit of a new ‘British’ state and a new ‘British’ consciousness operated.

Regarding Anglo-Scottish relations, it was chiefly in Ireland that the English and Scots intermingled after 1603, with a variety of consequences, sometimes positive, often negative. This book charts key aspects of the Anglo-Scottish experience in the country down to the Restoration and greatly improves understanding of that complex and troubled relationship. The importance of the Gaelic world in Irish-Scottish connections also receives greater attention here than in previous accounts. This Gaedhealtacht played a central role in the transmission of Catholic and Protestant radicalism in Ireland and Scotland, which served as a catalyst to underlying political and ethnic tensions within the British Isles, the consequences of which were revolutionary.

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Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

This conclusion chapter summarises the main lines of developments in British historiography, the relationships between those developments and academic practice. In the nineteenth century, when history was established as an academic profession, the notion of objectivity was often described as a matter of 'science'. Such was the prestige of the natural sciences that 'science' was regarded as an objective ideal to which all branches of learning aspired. The chapter suggests that historians must see the variety and the ever-changing nature of historiography as a strength, not a weakness, and that they should not resign from their task of interpreting the history of human actions. Of course history is about the past, but historiography is always responsive to present interest and needs. It is a human artefact, so inevitably it is a part of the intellectual life of the society that produces it.

in Historiography
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The anatomy of break-up
Stuart Ward

This introductory chapter addresses two key issues. First, the anatomy of ‘break-up’ as a recurring theme in British historiography and social commentary since the 1960s, and the long habit of ascribing the loosening bonds of the Union to the ‘dynamic absence’ of empire. Here, it is shown that the link between the end of empire and the ‘break-up of Britain’ is rarely, if ever established beyond a crude caricature. Second, the absence at the heart of the equation is squarely addressed, surveying the interpretative possibilities (and the conceptual difficulties) of endowing the properties of ‘break-up’ with a much wider territorial and cultural remit. It is argued that the end of empire was not simply an inert backdrop to the realignment of national allegiances in Britain but entailed simultaneous challenges to notions of collective selfhood among a vast constituency of peoples and cultures around the world, equally engaged in extricating themselves from the obsolete totems of empire and Britishness – unevenly and with widely varying outcomes. Indeed, valuable perspective can be gained from putting the travails of the Union in their proper perspective; as just one of any number of civic ruptures occasioned by the serial dislocations of decolonisation.

in The break-up of Greater Britain
Peter Yeandle

Citizens of the Future”: Educating children of the Jewish East End’, Twentieth Century British History , 19:4 (2008), 393–418; Tony Kushner, ‘New Narratives, Old Exclusions? British Historiography and Minority Studies’, Immigrants and Minorities , 24:2 ( 2006 ), 47–51.

in Citizenship, Nation, Empire
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History and historiography
Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

elsewhere in the book. Two are thematic, ‘Gender and history’ and ‘Cultural history’, because they represent a broadening of the original, largely political and then economic, interests of early historiography. One, ‘The Nazis and historiography’, takes a look at the unique fascination that this topic, along with the allied study of the Holocaust, has exercised on both academic and popular historiography. Finally in Chapter 8 we will summarise the main lines of developments in British historiography, the relationships between those developments and academic practice

in Historiography
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Amy Helen Bell

traditional urban working-class community, on the British Empire, on Britain’s global power, that British historiography of the war now reflects a Bell Murder Capital.indd 200 8/5/2014 1:52:21 PM Conclusion 201 sense of loss which overshadows the military victory. But as these investigations into suspicious deaths show, the dislocations of war also led to an opening-up of London’s communities and culture. The greater influx of new people and dissolution of traditional communities led to the possibility of greater anonymity in the city, like that found by Carolyn Steedman

in Murder Capital
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Neville Kirk

productive of socio-political conflict than in Britain. From the late 1960s to the mid 1980s Britain experienced levels of industrial and class conflict and general instability unmatched in Australia. The British labour and more general British historiography has reflected this dominant ‘bread and butter’ concern with the domestic economy. At the same time it has mirrored the Australian historiography in its general neglect of the comparative UK–Australian dimension of the politics of Cold War loyalism. As documented in the

in Labour and the politics of Empire