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A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

On intervention The great power involvement triggered by the Bulgarian atrocities was part of a wider international reaction to uprisings in the Balkans known as the Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78, which was to change the map of the Balkans. Events began with the Serbs of Herzegovina (July 1875), followed a little later by Bosnia, the Bulgarians (April–May 1876) and the war of the autonomous principalities of Serbia and Montenegro

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Nikolai Vukov

v 12 v The refugee question in Bulgaria before, during and after the First World War Nikolai Vukov Introduction Bulgaria stands out as a specific case in relation to population displacement during the First World War for several reasons. The migration of ethnic Bulgarians to Bulgarian territory took place on a very large scale prior to the First World War, reflecting the consequences of popular uprisings at the turn of the century, and especially the impact of the Balkan Wars in 1912–13, the second of which ended with a catastrophic defeat for Bulgaria and a

in Europe on the move
Joachim Neander

During the Second World War and its aftermath, the legend was spread that the Germans turned the bodies of Holocaust victims into soap stamped with the initials RIF, falsely interpreted as made from pure Jewish fat. In the years following liberation, RIF soap was solemnly buried in cemeteries all over the world and came to symbolise the six million killed in the Shoah, publicly showing the determination of Jewry to never forget the victims. This article will examine the funerals that started in Bulgaria and then attracted several thousand mourners in Brazil and Romania, attended by prominent public personalities and receiving widespread media coverage at home and abroad. In 1990 Yad Vashem laid the Jewish soap legend to rest, and today tombstones over soap graves are falling into decay with new ones avoiding the word soap. RIF soap, however, is alive in the virtual world of the Internet and remains fiercely disputed between believers and deniers.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

at three key moments in the evolution of the relationship between them’: activism around ‘Bulgarian atrocities’ in the 1870s, the pioneering use of photography in humanitarian relief efforts in response to Indian famines in the 1870s, and the Congo reform efforts that brought atrocity and photography together ‘for the first time in an orchestrated campaign’ (48). That explains why Twomey’s essay belongs in a book on ‘humanitarian’ photography. But could the essay also

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Refugees in the era of the Great War

This book talks about the mass displacement of civilians, estimated to be 14 to 15 million, in the twentieth-century Europe during the First World War. It looks at the causes and consequences of the refugee crisis and its aftermath, and the attempts to understand its significance. Key sites of displacement extended from Belgium to Armenia, taking in France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, East Prussia, the Russian Empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Serbia. The German army's occupation of Belgium, France, Poland and Lithuania prompted the mass flight of refugees, as did Russia's invasion of East Prussia in 1914. Jewish, Ruthenian and Polish civilians in the Habsburg Empire fled their homes or were deported by the military to distant locations. Following Italy's attack on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the Habsburg authorities ordered around 100,000 Slovenian subjects of the empire to leave. The Austrian and Bulgarian invasion of Serbia brought about a humanitarian catastrophe as civilians and the remnants of the Serbian army sought safety elsewhere. However, mass flight of civilian refugees did not begin in 1914 nor did it come to an end in 1918. Muslim refugees fled to the relative safety of Anatolia in order to escape violent persecution by Bulgarian and other forces during the Balkan Wars on 1912-13. There were complex movements of population between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey before 1914. The complex process of repatriation and resettlement affected soldiers and civilians alike and rarely took place in stable or peaceful circumstances.

This text focuses on the far right in the Balkan region, i.e., in Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. The ideological features, strategy and tactics, internal organization, leadership and collaboration in far right parties are treated under the label "internal supply-side". The "external supply side", then, includes the analysis of political, social, economic, ethno-cultural and international variables. The final chapters deal with voters for the far right, legislative implementation and far right organizations. The analysis of the far right parties in Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania shows the main factors important for the success of these parties in these countries are: charismatic leadership and strong party organization, the position and strategy of the mainstream parties, the state-building process, a strong national minority or diaspora abroad, electoral design and an international configuration.

The curiosity of the Bulgarian case
Elena Simeonova

10 A revolution in two stages: the curiosity of the Bulgarian case Elena Simeonova The East European revolutions A revolution in two stages: Bulgaria The Bulgarian revolution, as a fundamental change of the political, social and economic order, occurred in two stages. The first (November 1989 to July 1991) was marked by an overhaul of the political system. The second (December 1996 to February 1997) cleared the way for the restructuring of the economy and state social provision. The period between the two stages was characterised by economic breakdown and

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
‘Victim’ nations and the brotherhood of humanity
Rebecca Gill

supplemented by a dozen rival organizations; the Stafford House Committee, Lady Strangford’s Committee, the Russian Wounded Fund, the Turkish Compassionate Fund, collections on behalf of Bulgarians, Bosnians, Montenegrins, all these and many more find liberal patrons. At the same time the Indian Famine makes a thrilling appeal to the

in Calculating compassion
Public protests and reconstructions of the past in Bulgaria in the 1990s
Nikolai Vukov

13 From the ‘thirst for change’ and ‘hunger for truth’ to a ‘revolution that hardly happened’: public protests and reconstructions of the past in Bulgaria in the 1990s Nikolai Vukov Then and now: the communist era and aftermath Public protests in Bulgaria in the 1990s Having been an object of enhanced public interest and media attention, the twentieth anniversary of the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe was one of the major events of 2009 and was a frequent occasion for ceremonies, rituals and commemorative acts. Celebrations of the anniversary

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Albania and Bulgaria
Ivan P. Nikolov and James W. Peterson

attack from within the region, and by a Balkan assassin on a member of the Austrian royal family. World War II as well as the communist period created a situation in which the region was torn by both local and outside forces. The answer to the opening question about why stability has now set in is related to a variety of factors. Both Bulgaria and Albania entered NATO in part because of wars in Afghanistan

in Defending Eastern Europe