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Christian dualism originated in the reign of Constans II (641-68). It was a popular religion, which shared with orthodoxy an acceptance of scriptual authority and apostolic tradition and held a sacramental doctrine of salvation, but understood all these in a radically different way to the Orthodox Church. One of the differences was the strong part demonology played in the belief system. This text traces, through original sources, the origins of dualist Christianity throughout the Byzantine Empire, focusing on the Paulician movement in Armenia and Bogomilism in Bulgaria. It presents not only the theological texts, but puts the movements into their social and political context.

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Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

This chapter contains a selection of translated and annotated texts on the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world.

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
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Connections between East and West in the Middle Ages
François-Olivier Touati

The fact that leper hospitals emerged in the West around the time of the crusades has led to a belief that there is a close connection between the spread of leprosy and the heightened contacts between East and West during the period of warfare. But the examination of sources of all kinds, from historical, hagiographical and medical texts, to archaeological and iconographic evidence, reveals that the disease was present in both the East and the West prior to the crusades. It is also clear that the sick and the healthy were travelling as pilgrims to eastern holy sites before the initiation of the First Crusade in 1095. While the notion that leprosy was transmitted to the West because of the crusades must therefore be questioned, the extension of the field of observation towards the Byzantine world and the Near East is beneficial to our understanding of leprosy in medieval Europe. The western emulation of eastern attitudes towards assisting lepers is evident. Eastern influences can be discerned in the institutional form of the leper hospital, the palliative medical care offered to lepers and the manner in which lepers were treated as a special category of the sick. Furthermore, cultural influences did not travel in only one direction. The strengthening of the contacts between the various Mediterranean shores that resulted from the crusades led to the cross-influence of charitable models, shaping the foundation of leper hospitals, and the identity and treatment of leprosy sufferers, in both West and East.

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

albigeoise ( Paris, 1951 ) J. Hamilton and B. Hamilton , eds, Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World, c. 650–c. 1405 ( Manchester, 1998 ) Jacobus de Voragine [James of Varazze], The Golden Legend , ed. V. G. Ryan, 2 vols ( Princeton, 1993 ), I, pp. 254–66 (Peter Martyr); II, pp. 44–58 (Dominic) Jordan of Saxony, On the Beginnings of the Order of Preachers , ed. S. Tugwell ( Dublin, 1982 ) C. Léglu , R. Rist and C. Taylor , eds, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

interpreted the Old and New Testaments in accordance with their cosmological premises, and claimed that they had received the esoteric teaching of Christ which unlocked the mysteries of the sacred writings, but which was concealed from ordinary Christians belonging to the Great Church. 7 There is no evidence known to us of organized Gnostic groups surviving in the Byzantine world after the

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

Byzantine Worlds, c.650–c.1405 (Manchester, 1998), pp. 44–5; index entry ‘Bogomil churches’, p. 320. 23 There are difficulties in the Latin and geography of this passage on boundaries, and it is worth consulting the discussion and translation provided by B. Hamilton, ‘The Cathar Council of Saint-Félix reconsidered’, Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 48 (1978), 40–2. 24 Variant reading in one of Besse’s ms. copies. The printed text and the other copy give 1232

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
A militarised society?
Philip Rance

, ‘Military service’, pp. 13–15; J. Haldon, Byzantium in the seventh century. The transformation of a culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn, 1997), pp. 147–9, 229–32. 7 J. Haldon, Warfare , State and society in the Byzantine world, 565–1204 (London: UCL Press, 1999), pp. 60–6, 71–83; A. Eger, The Islamic-Byzantine frontier: interaction and exchange among Muslim and Christian communities (London: Tauris, 2015

in Early medieval militarisation
Process or discourse?
Guy Halsall

. Krause (eds) MGH Legum sectio II Capitularia regum francorum 2 (Hanover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1895–7), no. 273. 15 See J. Haldon, Warfare, state and society in the Byzantine world, 565–1204 (London: Routledge, 1999). 16 Even to some extent by me: G. Halsall, Barbarian migrations and the Roman

in Early medieval militarisation
Conor Whately

Zach. HE 7.6.c. See too J. Crow, ‘Fortifications and urbanism in late Antiquity. Thessaloniki and other eastern cities’, in L. Lavan (ed.), Recent research in late antique urbanism (Portsmouth, RI: JRA Supplement Series), pp. 89–105; E. Zanini, ‘Technology and ideas. Architects and master-builders in the Byzantine world’, in L. Lavan, E. Zanini and A. Sarantis (eds), Technology in transition, A. D. 300–630 (Leiden: Brill, 2008), pp. 381–405. 20

in Early medieval militarisation
John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

scholars range from those who regard the letter as based on observation of things that were actually there – albeit clothed in biblical language, and perhaps partly mistaken – to those who regard the letter’s contents as pure fantasy, dreamt up to stimulate crusade. For an example of the former, see J. and B. Hamilton, eds, Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World, c. 650–c. 1405 (Manchester, 1998), pp. 263–4; for an example of the latter, J.-L. Biget, ‘Un faux du xiii e siècle? Examen d’une hypothèse’, in M

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300