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Christian dualism originated in the reign of Constans II (641-68). It was a popular religion, which shared with orthodoxy an acceptance of scriptual authority and apostolic tradition and held a sacramental doctrine of salvation, but understood all these in a radically different way to the Orthodox Church. One of the differences was the strong part demonology played in the belief system. This text traces, through original sources, the origins of dualist Christianity throughout the Byzantine Empire, focusing on the Paulician movement in Armenia and Bogomilism in Bulgaria. It presents not only the theological texts, but puts the movements into their social and political context.

Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

father of the protomandator Carbeas, an important official on the staff of the governor of the Anatolikon theme. This caused Carbeas to revolt, and with a band of Paulicians said to number about 5,000, he fled to Argaoun and placed his services at the command of the Emir of Melitene. Lemerle argues cogently that this happened in 843–4, since a contemporary source relates that Carbeas was already in

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
Abstract only
Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

exile by the providence of God as befits their foul heresy. In accordance with God’s decrees about him a plot was laid against Callistus, that man of peace and advocate of piety, as it was against his own master. 5 He was handed over to the apostates under the command of the thrice-wretched Carbeas. There at first he was condemned to close confinement and the penalty of irons on his feet, together with those of

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450