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During the Second World War, over 9,000 men from several colonies, protectorates and mandate territories fought for the British Empire. These forces represented a significant shift in naval policy towards the recruitment of colonial manpower at a time of distinct pressures on British imperialism. This book examines the impact of colonial naval forces, by analyzing the 'official' and 'subaltern' sources in the United Kingdom, the Caribbean, East Africa, Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. The Trinidad Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (TRNVR) was formed to defend the island's oil supply to British oil-fired ships. The book also looks at the experience of the Cayman Islanders who volunteered to serve in the TRNVR. An East African case study focuses on Kenya and Zanzibar before and after the Second World War. The Kenya Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (KRNVR) was the first colonial naval force in the British Empire; local naval forces were also formed in Zanzibar and Tanganyika. In the analysis of Southeast Asia and the Malacca Straits, the book discusses, inter alia, origins of Malaya's naval forces, and analyses the issues of force expansion and 'Malaysianisation' during the Malayan Emergency and decolonisation. There was an initial reluctance on the Navy to recruit the Chinese, but with their overwhelming majority in Hong Kong, their enlistment in the Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (HKRNVR) was unavoidable. The post-war evolution of Hong Kong's naval force as it adjusted to the roles of Communist China's emergence and Britain's declining world are also examined.

John M. MacKenzie

, with their barrel-vaulted dungeon-like basements for the holding of slaves until their embarkation for the Atlantic middle passage, their tunnels leading to the beach and their iron gates.5 These West African forts are therefore emblematic not only of intercolonial violence but also of 52 Militarisation, mobility and the residencies of power the violence and human degradation of enslavement. At the other end of the trade, in the Caribbean islands, the destruction of indigenous populations and of pre-Columbian natural environments proceeded at enormous speed in what

in The British Empire through buildings
Open Access (free)
Janelle Joseph

two-week-long cricket tours and tournaments in England and numerous Caribbean islands, including Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia and Trinidad. I formally interviewed (digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim) 29 players, and held dozens of informal interviews with former players, supporters, team managers, tournament administrators and MCSC members, including members of the teams that came to play against the

in Sport in the Black Atlantic
White women and colonialism in Barbados and North Carolina, 1627–1865
Author: Cecily Jones

Whiteness, as a lived experience, is both gendered and racialised. This book seeks to understand the overlapping imbrication of whiteness in shaping the diverse material realities of women of European origin. The analysis pertains to the English-speaking slave-based societies of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and North Carolina in the American South. The book represents a comparative analysis of the complex interweaving of race, gender, social class and sexuality in defining the contours of white women's lives during the era of slavery. Despite their gendered subordination, their social location within the dominant white group afforded all white women a range of privileges, shaping these women's social identities and material realities. Conscious of the imperative to secure the racial loyalty of poor whites in order to assure its own security in the event of black uprisings, elite society attempted to harness the physical resources of the poor whites. The alienation of married women from property rights was rooted in and reinforced by the prevailing ideology of female economic dependence on men. White Barbadian women's proprietary rights as slave-owners were upheld in the law courts, even the poorest slaveholding white women could take recourse to the law to protect their property. White women's access to property was determined primarily by their marital status. The book reveals the strategies deployed by elite and poor white women in these societies to resist their gendered subordination, challenge the constraints that restricted their lives to the private domestic sphere, secure independent livelihoods and create meaningful existences.

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Private greed, political negligence and housing policy after Grenfell

As the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire of 14 June 2017 has slowly revealed a shadowy background of outsourcing and deregulation, and a council turning a blind eye to health and safety concerns, many questions need answers. Stuart Hodkinson has those answers. Safe as Houses weaves together Stuart’s research over the last decade with residents’ groups in council regeneration projects across London to provide the first comprehensive account of how Grenfell happened and how it could easily have happened in multiple locations across the country. It draws on examples of unsafe housing either refurbished or built by private companies under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to show both the terrible human consequences of outsourcing and deregulation and how the PFI has enabled developers, banks and investors to profiteer from highly lucrative, taxpayer-funded contracts. The book also provides shocking testimonies of how councils and other public bodies have continuously sided with their private partners, doing everything in their power to ignore, deflect and even silence those who speak out. The book concludes that the only way to end the era of unsafe regeneration and housing provision is to end the disastrous regime of self-regulation. This means strengthening safety laws, creating new enforcement agencies independent of government and industry, and replacing PFI and similar models of outsourcing with a new model of public housing that treats the provision of shelter as ‘a social service’ democratically accountable to its residents.

Philip Nanton

Margaret Atwood’s thriller Bodily Harm ( 1998 [1981] ). While the two novels omit any direct reference to a specific country, they speak strongly to the particularity of the smaller Caribbean islands. Finally, I read two political memoirs by Prime Ministers of St Vincent for what they reveal about the frontier: that of James ‘Son’ Mitchell, Prime Minister from 1984 to 2001, and the other by his successor, Ralph

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
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Linnie Blake

the serial killer that competing versions of essentialised American identity (themselves the figurations of structural trauma) would battle it out to the bloody end. Thus adopting foreign and domestic policies that in Eric Hobsbawm’s words ‘can be understood only as an attempt to wipe out the stain of humiliation’8 imparted by the United States’ ideological and military defeat in Vietnam, Reagan would repeatedly make ‘gestures of military power against sitting targets: like the invasion of the small Caribbean island of Grenada (1983), the massive naval and air

in The wounds of nations
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Jessica Gerrard

_Gerrard_Childhoods_Printer.indd 119 02/04/2014 10:39 120 Black Saturday Schools, 1967–90 to England from either West Africa (Andrew and Daniel), or one of the Caribbean islands (Sophie, Edward, Martin and Nelson). Of these, most arrived as university students (Edward, Martin, Daniel and Andrew), but Sophie and Nelson arrived as workers. Alison, a white British woman, became involved in the BSS movement in the early 1970s through her involvement in anti-racist campaigns and her work in the charity and not-for-profit sector. Many of these first-wave activists are still involved in black activism

in Radical childhoods
Abigail Ward

women entering the country from 1948 has roots in a much earlier period. In the works explored in this chapter, Phillips traces the origins of this attitude, and the related anxieties surrounding national identity. In his novel Cambridge (1991), a white plantation-owner’s daughter finds her English identity thrown into confusion in the creolising space of the unnamed Caribbean island, and a male slave reflects on his life as a ‘virtual Englishman’. In Crossing the River (1993), the black diaspora created by slavery is examined over a two hundred and fifty

in Caryl Phillips, David Dabydeen and Fred D’Aguiar
Philip Nanton

. Frontier study also offers a useful foil to the nationalist representation of history. This notion of frontier can encompass an American sense of open-endedness as well as the more European idea of (fortified) boundary lines. This definition is useful to my exploration of the specificity of the frontier in a relatively under-explored Caribbean context, the eastern Caribbean island state of SVG. 1

in Frontiers of the Caribbean