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The Chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg

The career, mental world and writings of Regino, abbot of Prüm, were all defined by the Carolingian empire and, more particularly, by its end. The high Ottonian period of the mid-tenth century also witnessed a revival of historiography, exemplified by the work of the two major authors who wrote about the rise of the dynasty. The first of these was Liutprand of Cremona, whose Antapodosis, a history of European politics from 888 until around 950, and Historia Ottonis, a focused account of events surrounding Otto's imperial coronation, were both written in the earlier 960s. The second was Adalbert, who most probably wrote his continuation to the Chronicle in 967/968. Regino's Chronicle, dedicated to Bishop Adalbero of Augsburg in the year 908, was the last work of its kind for several decades, and as such its author can be regarded as the last great historian of the Carolingian Empire. The Chronicle is divided into two books. The first, subtitled 'On the times of the Lord's incarnation', begins with the incarnation of Christ and proceeds as far as the death of Charles Martel in 741. The second 'On the deeds of the kings of the Franks' takes the story from the death of Charles Martel through to 906. The much shorter continuation by Adalbert of Magdeburg enjoys a place in the canon of works relating to the history of the earliest German Reich and consequently has received considerably more attention.

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Ninth-century histories, volume II

This book presents a rough translation of the Annals of Fulda (AF). By the ninth century annals were one of the major vehicles for historical writing within the Frankish empire. The AF are the principal narrative source written from a perspective east of the Rhine for the period in which the Carolingian Empire gave way to a number of successor kingdoms, including the one which was to become Germany. AF offer the major narrative account of the east Frankish kingdom from the death of Louis the Pious down to the end of the ninth century. The surviving manuscripts are only an echo of what must once have been a much more extensive transmission, to judge by the use made of AF by a number of later annalists and compilers. The brief description of the manuscript tradition must be amplified by looking at the content of the annals. For the years 714 to 830 the work is undoubtedly a compilation which draws on earlier annals, in particular on the Royal Frankish Annals and the Lorsch Frankish Chronicle, with occasional use of other smaller sets of annals and saints' lives. The account of the origins of AF was heavily criticised by Siegmund Hellmann in a number of articles written some fifteen years after the appearance of Friedrich Kurze's edition in 1891.

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Regino’s world and career The career, mental world and writings of Regino, abbot of Prüm (d.915), were all defined by the Carolingian empire and, more particularly, by its end. The Carolingians were the second great ruling dynasty of the Franks, one of the barbarian peoples which had taken up the reins of power in the Roman provinces at the end of the fifth century. Their

in History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe

secular components and repercussions, and vice versa.2 In his efforts to further his reforms Charlemagne relied on networks based on trust, loyalty and values shared with his fideles. The two meanings of the word fides, ‘faith’ and ‘fidelity’, exemplify the interwovenness of politics and religion in the Carolingian empire. When it comes to assessing Monte Cassino’s position within Charlemagne’s network of renovatio, important clues are held by Theodemar’s epistolary guide to the world of Benedictine monastic discipline, including his lengthy discussion of fashion. But

in Religious Franks
Carolingian local correctio and an unknown priests’ exam from the early ninth century

for priestly knowledge, we also have the actual books they studied and worked with. Interestingly, it is exactly in these kinds of manuscripts that we find the Dic mihi. 15 Susan Keefe has gathered all Carolingian baptismal expositions and explanations, editing over sixty such texts. See S. Keefe, Water and the Word. Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 2 vols, Vol. II (Notre Dame, 2002), passim. Many of these texts, again, survive in manuscripts together with priests’ exams. 16 See, for instance, the first episcopal statute by

in Religious Franks

pillaging Norsemen began to raid the towns of western and northern Europe, beginning seriously in 834, and penetrating the Rhine, Seine, and Loire rivers. Militarily and psychologically, their greatest asset was surprise, appearing without warning in their swift long-boats to plunder and pillage towns and monasteries before escaping back to their Scandinavian bases. Given that the Carolingian empire was also subjected to Moslem raids in the south – in Spain, Italy, and France – the Vikings provided Charlemagne’s successors with a guerilla war on two fronts, extended to a

in Munitions of the Mind
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application éclatante’29 in the wake of a crumbling Carolingian Empire. The ‘singularités françaises’30 in the ecclesiastical history of the Middle Ages, it is argued, can be found most readily in the relations between the papacy and the Church in France. The geographic focus of this book is thus deliberate and rewarding. That it is determined by much of the extant evidence from these early medieval centuries is a cogent reflection of papal diplomatic practice and concern, Frankish administration, and evolving ecclesiastical–​political structures. A  special relationship

in Freedom and protection
1 Peter 2.9 and the Franks

Lord’s anointed’, p. 109. 35 Alcuin, Ep. 134, ed. E. Dümmler, MGH Epp. 4, 1–481, pp. 202–3; more recently edited by S. Keefe, Water and the Word. Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 2 vols, Vol. II (Notre Dame, 2002), text 9, pp. 238–45; cf. Keefe, Water and the Word, Vol. I, pp. 80–99 for discussion; O. Phelan, ‘Textual transmission and authorship in the Carolingian period. Primo paganus, baptism, and Alcuin of York’, Revue Bénédictine 118 (2008), 262–88. 33 22 Gerda Heydemann and Walter Pohl invoking kingdom and priesthood even

in Religious Franks
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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims

through the Carolingian empire, Dalmatia, Bulgaria and possibly Pannonia.2 Gottschalk’s chief activity during his absence seems to have been missionary work outside the empire, although he also developed a reputation in Italy as a theologian for his teachings on divine grace and predestination.3 Gottschalk conceptualised salvation as possible only through grace, saying that God granted it to the elect while withholding it from the damned.4 It was up to human sinners to beg for that grace with a penitent heart, as Gottschalk emphasised in his penitential hymns.5 The

in Hincmar of Rheims
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historians’ interpretations have diverged widely. Some see the period as a catastrophic one, when the Carolingian Empire declined and fell, the western economy re-entered a deep recession, and Christendom reeled under the blows of pagan Viking attacks. Others see this as a period of creativity and growth, when new political communities, a new and dynamic western economy, and a self-conscious Latin

in The Annals of St-Bertin