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Dame Janet L. Nelson

moment’). Peter Brown, having invented the period ‘late antiquity’, might have coined a late antique moment; and the term might then have been used by historians of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages to stretch the later Roman Empire and its transformation to include the ‘Successor States’ described and dissected by Paul Fouracre in the preceding chapter. There are limits, however, to how far one can stretch the words ‘late’ and ‘later’ and still call it a ‘moment’. I am not the first historian to identify a Carolingian moment: Pierre Toubert did so twenty years

in Debating medieval Europe
Paschasius Radbertus' funeral oration for Wala of Corbie
Authors: Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

This book presents a new and accessible translation of a well-known yet enigmatic text: the ‘Epitaph for Arsenius’ by the monk and scholar Paschasius Radbertus (Radbert) of Corbie. This monastic dialogue, with the author in the role of narrator, plunges the reader directly into the turmoil of ninth-century religion and politics. ‘Arsenius’ was the nickname of Wala, a member of the Carolingian family who in the 830s became involved in the rebellions against Louis the Pious. Exiled from the court, Wala/Arsenius died Italy in 836. Casting both Wala and himself in the role of the prophet Jeremiah, Radbert chose the medium of the epitaph (funeral oration) to deliver a polemical attack, not just on Wala’s enemies, but also on his own.

Rachel Stone

this paper I want to make some comparisons between lordship in Francia and England, focusing less on the institution itself than on contemporary depictions of the relationship, in particular in literary sources, and the moral norms associated with it. Although there have been many discussions of the practice of ‘ Herrschaft ’ in the Carolingian world, especially in regional studies, analysis of the ethos

in Frankland
Sven Meeder

15 Monte Cassino and Carolingian politics around 800 Sven Meeder Perhaps one of the earliest witnesses to a fundamental difference in Italian and French couture is a late-eighth-century letter from Monte Cassino. Its sharp observation of fashion differences is arguably still an accurate representation of the variation in dress on either side of the Alps: ‘the Gallic monks dress in more wide and more generous clothes, whereas the Italian monks, like ours, have shorter and tighter garments’.1 The text in question is not principally concerned with the apparently

in Religious Franks
David Ganz

sought to answer. Texts like this are rarely edited; they do not offer original thoughts, and often attest to the poor Latin and poor spelling of the scribes who copied them. They occur quite often among more substantial materials assembled in Carolingian manuscripts. By offering a transcription and a translation I hope first to provide a teaching source for those who want to understand Frankish thoughts

in Frankland
The Chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg
Author: Simon MacLean

The career, mental world and writings of Regino, abbot of Prüm, were all defined by the Carolingian empire and, more particularly, by its end. The high Ottonian period of the mid-tenth century also witnessed a revival of historiography, exemplified by the work of the two major authors who wrote about the rise of the dynasty. The first of these was Liutprand of Cremona, whose Antapodosis, a history of European politics from 888 until around 950, and Historia Ottonis, a focused account of events surrounding Otto's imperial coronation, were both written in the earlier 960s. The second was Adalbert, who most probably wrote his continuation to the Chronicle in 967/968. Regino's Chronicle, dedicated to Bishop Adalbero of Augsburg in the year 908, was the last work of its kind for several decades, and as such its author can be regarded as the last great historian of the Carolingian Empire. The Chronicle is divided into two books. The first, subtitled 'On the times of the Lord's incarnation', begins with the incarnation of Christ and proceeds as far as the death of Charles Martel in 741. The second 'On the deeds of the kings of the Franks' takes the story from the death of Charles Martel through to 906. The much shorter continuation by Adalbert of Magdeburg enjoys a place in the canon of works relating to the history of the earliest German Reich and consequently has received considerably more attention.

Albrecht Diem

13 The Carolingians and the Regula Benedicti Albrecht Diem Trying to handle the project of Carolingian monastic reform is like putting together a picture from pieces belonging to different puzzles. Each set of sources – hagiography, chronicles, commentaries to the Regula Benedicti, charters, capitularia and acts of Church councils – tells a different story. Attempts to forge them into a cohesive narrative force us to overlook contradictions and necessarily expand on problematic master narratives. Wherever we start, we end up in irresolvable conundrums. Things

in Religious Franks
Paul Fouracre

The last chapter examined the way in which the Carolingian rulers of Francia gave institutional backing to the scriptural injunction to keep lights burning before the tabernacle, that is, to have a perpetual light on every altar. This was revealed in normative sources (capitularies, the records of church councils, and the ‘episcopal statutes’). At the same time, the evidence of royal charters showed that providing for the lights was regarded as politically and morally important. The spread of churches and the universalisation of obligations to the Church in the

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Philippe Depreux

20 The Penance of Attigny (822) and the leadership of the bishops in amending Carolingian society Philippe Depreux Penance is a main topic in Louis the Pious’s reign, as Mayke de Jong’s book on the crisis of the late 820s and early 830s brilliantly shows.1 The most dramatic moment is the emperor’s deposition in 833, which led to vivid discussion among the political elite.2 This was not the first time Louis publicly acknowledged his errors, since he had already done so in 822 at Attigny, one of the most important palaces, which was associated with political

in Religious Franks
Theo Riches

T HE DEDICATEE OF this volume has illuminated many a corner of the political, cultural and social history of early medieval Europe, in particular but not only that part ruled by the Carolingian dynasty in the ninth century. Janet Nelson’s work of late has concentrated on the greatest of that family, Charlemagne, and what amounts to an attempt to explain his

in Frankland