Setting the stage for a regional political class
Klaus Stolz

2 Regionalism, regionalisation and regional institutions in Catalonia and Scotland: setting the stage for a regional political class This chapter sets out to delineate the broad historical developments and the main structural features that condition the potential emergence and scope of a regional political class in Catalonia and Scotland. This is of course a vast and difficult task, as it touches upon the macro-processes of democratisation, state modernisation, regionalisation and political professionalisation and the complex ways they have impacted on each other

in Towards a regional political class?
Professional politicians and regional institutions in Catalonia and Scotland
Series: Devolution
Author: Klaus Stolz

Focusing on professional politicians, this book investigates the interrelationship between political career patterns and political institutions in two of the most widely discussed cases of regionalism: Catalonia and Scotland. It deals with two different yet closely related sets of questions. Firstly, how do professional politicians pursue their careers in the regional context? And secondly, how do they shape and reshape the political institutions in which they pursue these careers? The book is based on extensive empirical research including a comprehensive data set on the careers of Catalan and Scottish parliamentarians, systematic surveys of regional representatives as well as in-depth interviews with a wide range of politicians and experts in both regions. Exploring the effects of political professionalisation on regional democracy, it goes beyond traditional studies of regionalism and decentralization, while its focus on the regional career arena introduces a territorial dimension to the study of political careers.

First published in Spanish in 2001, this book is a study of the development of Spanish national identity (‘the idea of Spain’) from the end of the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. It breaks away from an academic obsession with the sub-nationalism of Catalonia and the Basque Country to examine the predominant form of national consciousness, against which they reacted. The book traces the emergence and evolution of an initial collective identity within the Iberian Peninsula from the Middle Ages to the end of the ancien regime based on the Catholic religion, loyalty to the Crown and Empire. The adaptation of this identity to the modern era, beginning with the Napoleonic Wars and the liberal revolutions, forms the crux of this study. None the less, the book also embraces the highly contested evolution of the national identity in the twentieth century, including both the Civil War and the Franco Dictatorship. It ranges widely over diverse subjects such as representations of the past in Spain, the role of the arts and sciences in creating national consciousness, the impact of religion and Catholic ideas, the use of cultural symbolism, and the significance of contemporary events and political movements.

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The making of a regional political class in itself
Klaus Stolz

3 Political careers: the making of a regional political class in itself In the first part of the empirical analysis the focus is on the political class as a dependent variable and remains restricted to its structural dimension as a class ‘in itself’. It is asked whether the concurrent processes of regionalisation and political professionalisation in Catalonia and Scotland have led to the emergence of a regional political class as constituted by the existence of professional politicians (functional differentiation) with a common regional career orientation

in Towards a regional political class?
Culture and community in the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia
Duncan Wheeler

it were to be employed as part of an assimilation programme. Sabino Arana – the founder of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party; PNV) in 1895 – argued, ‘drawing on pre-existing memories of what the foreign invader had been’, that maketos were their Moors. 6 He thereby privileged race over culture: ‘citizens who wanted to become members of the party had to prove their Basque origins by demonstrating that their first four surnames, later only one of the four, were etymologically Basque’. 7 Having studied in Catalonia, Arana opposed what he

in Following Franco
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Traces of a regional political class in Catalonia and Scotland
Klaus Stolz

5 Conclusion: traces of a regional political class in Catalonia and Scotland Having analysed the making of a regional political class and its re-making of regional institutions in Catalonia and Scotland in some detail, it is now time to step back and reprise what this analysis can tell us about the development, the state, and the prospect of democracy and autonomy in the two regions. This is followed by a more general evaluation of the theoretical insights and the conceptual advancements that result from a comparison of the two cases. The impact of political

in Towards a regional political class?
Klaus Stolz

political vocation, drawing their salary and pension from serving in the most prestigious positions of Catalan politics. Furthermore, in regionalising the Spanish state and establishing Catalan regional democracy, they, together with their colleagues in this profession, have been shaping an institutional structure that provides many more Catalans with the opportunity to combine their strong feelings for Catalonia with a professional political career. In May 1999, nineteen years after the inauguration of the Catalan Parliament, another long-awaited regional parliament was

in Towards a regional political class?
A regional political class for itself
Klaus Stolz

4 (Re)making political institutions: a regional political class for itself As we have seen in the last chapter, political institutions established in Catalonia and Scotland have allowed for a professionalisation of Catalan and Scottish politicians and are shaping the patterns of their careers. Thus, regionalisation has not only brought about a territorial differentiation of politics but has also come with a new functional division of labour. Regional self-government is more or less delegated to political professionals trusted with this task. These professional

in Towards a regional political class?
Combating discrimination against immigrant workers
Ricard Zapata-Barrero

directives in policy-making at State and regional (Catalonia) level and collective bargaining, drawing on information from policy documents and interviews with stakeholders. The fifth section looks at good practice and challenges for the legal fight against discrimination. The chapter concludes with some final remarks following the main theoretical framework of the book: that is, that the multiple diversity secneario is at the origin of a practical approach that plays a restrictive role for innovation and change in the workplace. Immigrant workers in the Spanish labour

in Diversity management in Spain
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Catalan, Portuguese and Castilian pamphlets on the Confederate War in Ireland
Hiram Morgan

that the central component of the Spanish monarchy did not collapse under the strain. Rather than religion aggravating relations between court and country, the strain from long years of war in the Low Countries and Germany eventually reached breaking point in Catalonia in 1640. In the same way as the Scottish situation brought forward the crisis in Ireland, the demands of Madrid on the increasingly recalcitrant Portuguese for an army to suppress Catalonia provoked a revolution in Lisbon. These linked nationalist revolts represented the outworking of a crisis at the

in Ireland, 1641