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Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

Ciaran O’Neill

15 Power, wealth and Catholic identity in Ireland, 1850–1900 Ciaran O’Neill Life is too short to follow a lisp into Burke’s Peerage.1 Arthur E. Clery, 1921 Catholics with money can be a rare sight in Irish history – a sort of mythical, unlikely creature. The preoccupation with connecting poverty to Catholicism suggests an institutional reliance within Irish historiography on the language of ‘endurance and emergence’ that has been passed down from, among other sources, the widely-read Christian Brothers schoolbooks of the early twentieth century.2 As Ian

in Irish Catholic identities
A brief survey
Éamonn Ó Ciardha

8 Irish-language sources for Irish Catholic identity since the early modern period: a brief survey Éamonn Ó Ciardha The five decades after the ‘Flight of the Earls’ (1607) witnessed a marked decline in the fortunes of the professional learned classes of poets, scribes, brehons, genealogists and chroniclers. Although the wholesale destruction of manuscripts and the carelessness of subsequent generations have deprived us of much of their œuvre, nearly six thousand manuscripts (many of which remain unedited and untranslated) have survived the ravages of time to

in Irish Catholic identities
Brian Jackson

6 Henry Fitzsimon, the Irish Jesuits and Catholic identity in the early modern period Brian Jackson In a short biographical sketch of the distinguished Irish Jesuit Henry Fitzsimon published in Studies in 1943, James Corboy concluded his essay with a bleak assessment of life on the Jesuit mission to Ireland in 1630. Corboy asserted that after a long literary career on the continent, Fitzsimon returned from exile to Dublin where he was so harassed by persecution that he had no opportunity to write.1 Corboy was following in distinguished footsteps down a well

in Irish Catholic identities
Abstract only
Oliver P. Rafferty

Ireland, are a sense of ‘Irishness’ often conceived in broad terms and subject to fluctuating understanding of what constitutes such an identity, and adherence to the Catholic faith. The influence, authority and role of the Catholic Church in shaping Irish Catholic consciousness are, therefore, paramount as a template for understanding Ireland and the Irish historically. Among the issues raised is the seminal question: does it make sense to think in terms of a clear and distinct identity over time, and is this sense of identity linked 2 Irish Catholic identities

in Irish Catholic identities
Fergal Casey

radicalism arguably constitutes a ‘greening’ – the application to England of insights gleaned from his engagement with Ireland. His pamphlet Ireland: A Letter to Earl Grey (1868) adopted politically radical ideas in response to Irish conditions, and this essay will offer a preliminary sketch of how in the service of a new Irish Catholic identity his economics radicalised, beginning with the pamphlet The Dignity and Rights of Labour (1874). His activism in the 1880s such as his mediation in the dock strike and his letters to The Times went side by side with growing

in Irish Catholic identities
Louise Fuller

expressions of Catholic and Irish identity state were also very concerned to further the aim of restoring the Irish language and culture to its rightful position and they did this chiefly by means of the education system. Church and political interests had the same vision of the purity and distinctiveness of Irish culture and were equally concerned to restore, maintain and protect what was seen as the unique Irish Catholic identity from what were perceived to be alien influences emanating from abroad. Independence made it possible to copper-fasten Catholic identity and

in Irish Catholic identities
Salvador Ryan

include in devotional collections or ‘launch’ in religious verse. In this, at least, the communities of both Anglo-Ireland and Gaelic Ireland were as one. In the long term, it would be the shared religious culture of both Anglo-Norman (now ‘Old English’) and Gaelic Irish Catholics which would come under scrutiny in the Reformation period, leading to the construction of a common Catholic identity in the seventeenth century.39 Notes  1 P. J.  Corish, The Irish Catholic Experience (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1985), p. 49.  2 M. T.  Flanagan, The Transformation of the

in Irish Catholic identities
Niall Coll

economic 366 Contemporary expressions of Catholic and Irish identity downturn since the Great Famine. Politicians, bankers, developers and financiers are under fire. In what way then is it credible to speak about Irish Catholic identity today? A sharp and amusing perspective on the current confusions and challenges that Irish Catholics and indeed all Irish people face in trying to locate a distinct identity is summed up in Tom Bartlett’s observation that: By 2010 Irish distinctiveness had apparently vanished, and so too had Irish exceptionalism. Where once just about

in Irish Catholic identities
Oliver P. Rafferty

thought that violence was the only solution to the community’s difficulties. The failures of government to uphold the credibility of institutional Catholicism in the eyes of the Catholic community led to fragmentation in Catholic identity and enabled the ‘men of violence’ to take the lead in determining Catholicism’s relationship with the state authorities in Britain and Northern Ireland. Despite the church’s decline since the peace process as a major force 346 Contemporary expressions of Catholic and Irish identity in Irish society, some recent academic analysis

in Irish Catholic identities