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Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

Ciaran O’Neill

15 Power, wealth and Catholic identity in Ireland, 1850–1900 Ciaran O’Neill Life is too short to follow a lisp into Burke’s Peerage.1 Arthur E. Clery, 1921 Catholics with money can be a rare sight in Irish history – a sort of mythical, unlikely creature. The preoccupation with connecting poverty to Catholicism suggests an institutional reliance within Irish historiography on the language of ‘endurance and emergence’ that has been passed down from, among other sources, the widely-read Christian Brothers schoolbooks of the early twentieth century.2 As Ian

in Irish Catholic identities
A brief survey
Éamonn Ó Ciardha

8 Irish-language sources for Irish Catholic identity since the early modern period: a brief survey Éamonn Ó Ciardha The five decades after the ‘Flight of the Earls’ (1607) witnessed a marked decline in the fortunes of the professional learned classes of poets, scribes, brehons, genealogists and chroniclers. Although the wholesale destruction of manuscripts and the carelessness of subsequent generations have deprived us of much of their œuvre, nearly six thousand manuscripts (many of which remain unedited and untranslated) have survived the ravages of time to

in Irish Catholic identities
Brian Jackson

6 Henry Fitzsimon, the Irish Jesuits and Catholic identity in the early modern period Brian Jackson In a short biographical sketch of the distinguished Irish Jesuit Henry Fitzsimon published in Studies in 1943, James Corboy concluded his essay with a bleak assessment of life on the Jesuit mission to Ireland in 1630. Corboy asserted that after a long literary career on the continent, Fitzsimon returned from exile to Dublin where he was so harassed by persecution that he had no opportunity to write.1 Corboy was following in distinguished footsteps down a well

in Irish Catholic identities
From Galway to Cloyne and beyond

This book engages with the spectacular disenchantment with Catholicism in Ireland over the relatively short period of four decades. It begins with the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1979 and in particular his address to young people in Galway, where the crowd had been entertained beforehand by two of Ireland’s most celebrated clerics, Bishop Eamon Casey and Fr Michael Cleary, both of whom were engaged at the time in romantic affairs that resulted in the birth of children. It will be argued that the Pope’s visit was prompted by concern at the significant fall in vocations to priesthood and the religious life and the increasing secularism of Irish society.

The book then explores the various referenda that took place during the 1980s on divorce and abortion which, although they resulted in victories for the Church, demonstrated that their hold on the Irish public was weakening. The clerical abuse scandals of the 1990s were the tipping point for an Irish public which was generally resentful of the intrusive and repressive form of Catholicism that had been the norm in Ireland since the formation of the State in the 1920s.

Boasting an impressive array of contributors from various backgrounds and expertise, the essays in the book attempt to delineate the exact reasons for the progressive dismantling of the cultural legacy of Catholicism and the consequences this has had on Irish society. Among the contributors are Patricia Casey, Joe Cleary, Michael Cronin, Louise Fuller, Patsy McGarry, Vincent Twomey and Eamonn Wall.

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Oliver P. Rafferty

Ireland, are a sense of ‘Irishness’ often conceived in broad terms and subject to fluctuating understanding of what constitutes such an identity, and adherence to the Catholic faith. The influence, authority and role of the Catholic Church in shaping Irish Catholic consciousness are, therefore, paramount as a template for understanding Ireland and the Irish historically. Among the issues raised is the seminal question: does it make sense to think in terms of a clear and distinct identity over time, and is this sense of identity linked 2 Irish Catholic identities

in Irish Catholic identities
Fergal Casey

radicalism arguably constitutes a ‘greening’ – the application to England of insights gleaned from his engagement with Ireland. His pamphlet Ireland: A Letter to Earl Grey (1868) adopted politically radical ideas in response to Irish conditions, and this essay will offer a preliminary sketch of how in the service of a new Irish Catholic identity his economics radicalised, beginning with the pamphlet The Dignity and Rights of Labour (1874). His activism in the 1880s such as his mediation in the dock strike and his letters to The Times went side by side with growing

in Irish Catholic identities
Louise Fuller

expressions of Catholic and Irish identity state were also very concerned to further the aim of restoring the Irish language and culture to its rightful position and they did this chiefly by means of the education system. Church and political interests had the same vision of the purity and distinctiveness of Irish culture and were equally concerned to restore, maintain and protect what was seen as the unique Irish Catholic identity from what were perceived to be alien influences emanating from abroad. Independence made it possible to copper-fasten Catholic identity and

in Irish Catholic identities
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Hymns ancient and modern
Alana Harris

, with the ‘Vatican Rag’ to this account of ‘Welcome John Paul’ (coupled with Boney M), this book has explored from a historical perspective, and using the framework of lived religious experience, many of the issues encapsulated in these contemporaneous, 258-270 FaithFamily Ch 6.indd 259 04/04/2013 14:40 260 Faith in the family archived, oral history interviews. These reflections have been situated against the backdrop of an academic literature discussing the ‘secularisation’ of British society and the continuing salience of Catholic identity amidst the widespread

in Faith in the family
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Protestant readings of the Whore of Babylon in early modern England, c.1580–1625
Victoria Brownlee

’s painstaking detail also revealed the identity and workings of their greatest enemy, the Roman Catholic Church. 2 Martin Luther declared the Whore’s Roman Catholic identity by including a woodcut depicting her in the papal tiara in his 1522 New Testament and, as this interpretation gained credibility among reformers on the continent, it accrued similar respect and popularity in England

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700