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Ireland in a global world
Series: Irish Society

Migration to and from Ireland is often the subject of definitive claims. During the 1980s, migration from Ireland was most commonly described as a brain drain. Despite the constant flows and counterflows, academic studies tend to focus on just one direction of movement, reflecting dominant concerns at particular points in time. The 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. This book addresses the three key themes from a variety of spatial, temporal and theoretical perspectives. The theme of networks is addressed. Transnational loyalist networks acted both to facilitate the speaking tours of loyalist speakers and to re-translate the political meanings and messages being communicated by the speakers. The Irish Catholic Church and specifically its re-working of its traditional pastoral, lobbying and development role within Irish emigrant communities, is discussed. By highlighting three key areas such as motives, institutions and strategies, and support infrastructures, the book suggests that the Irish experience offers a nuanced understanding of the different forms of networks that exist between a state and its diaspora, and shows the importance of working to support the self-organization of the diaspora. Perceptions of belonging both pre- and postmigration encouraged ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. Finally, the book provides insights into the intersections between 'migrancy' and other social categories including gender, nationality and class/position in the labour hierarchy.

The spa in Celtic Tiger Ireland
Ronan Foley

-geographies of the modern spa by outlining how the development of spas during the Celtic Tiger era was shaped by a number of factors, namely classification, design and facilities, along with location and clientele. Table 11.1 shows an adapted version of the spa classification drawn up by Fáilte Ireland in conjunction with a representative group of spa owners (Fáilte Ireland, 2011). One can see in this classification scheme a tension between tourist and wellness identities. Indeed, one of the key drivers behind the development of the classification was a concern from high

in Spacing Ireland
The official redefinition of the island of Ireland
Author: Katy Hayward

How has it been possible for Irish political leaders to not just accept but actively promote two of the largest challenges to Irish nation-statehood: the concession of sovereignty to the European Union (EU) and the retraction of the constitutional claim over Northern Ireland? This book argues that, rather than indicating a pragmatic retreat, such decisions (and their justification on the public stage) reveal the unique power and enduring relevance of nationalism to Irish and European politics today. As a detailed study of official discourse in twentieth-century Ireland, it traces the ways in which nationalism can be simultaneously redefined and revitalised through European integration. The text moves from an overview of the origins and development of Irish official nationalism to analyse the connections between its response to profound internal and external challenges to Irish nation-statehood. The genius of the Irish approach to such challenges has been to employ innovative EU-inspired concepts in finding agreement with and within Northern Ireland, whilst simultaneously legitimising further European integration on the grounds that it fulfils traditional nationalist ideals. Thus, Irish political leaders have been successful in not only accommodating potent nationalist and pro-European discourses, but in making them appear complementary. The book concludes with an assessment of likely changes in this symbiotic relationship in the post-EU enlargement, post-Celtic Tiger era.

Celtic Tiger cinema
Ruth Barton

nuance the overall debate with a reminder that not all of the changes that occurred during the late 1990s and through to the 2000s were due to the new economic order; some were as a result of an interweaving of circumstances, not least of which was the end of the Troubles. For reasons of concision, I am excluding discussions of television and other new media; I am also bearing in mind that films often have a long production time; therefore many of the releases that fall within the early years of the Celtic Tiger have their origins in the pre-­Celtic Tiger era, while

in From prosperity to austerity
An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

conditions that have allowed indigenous and foreign businesses to flourish. In the eyes of MacSharry and White,26 for instance, the significance of social partnership is so great that it should be acknowledged as the ‘crowning achievement’ of the Celtic Tiger era. The interpretations of the boom that have exercised perhaps greatest influence over the popular imagination suggest that the turnaround in the economic performance of the Irish Republic hinged upon not only the allegedly ‘daring’ measures adopted at senior levels of the state but also a wider shift in the values

in The end of Irish history?
Michael Breen, Michael Courtney, Iain Mcmenamin, Eoin O’Malley and Kevin Rafter

-called ‘Troika’ of the IMF, EC, and ECB. The media acted as a cheerleader for Ireland’s booming property market during the Celtic Tiger era. Glossy magazines, property supplements, and lifestyle television programmes were filled with tips about buying and decorating homes and encouraged the public to become rich by investing in property. Media organisations partnered with so-called ‘property experts’ to spread positive news stories about property. Media hype about property was based on numbers, but it was also underpinned by blind faith in a gamble on property. The evidence

in Resilient reporting
Ebun Joseph

–8 times that of the White Irish/European population. Ireland: no longer a monocultural society Ireland has, over the years, experienced differing migration flows in and out of the country. With its transformation from a country of emigration to one of in-migration, the ethnic diversity which challenges Ireland’s status as monocultural has been well documented (Fanning, 2002; Garner, 2004; Lentin and McVeigh, 2006). While being mainly credited to the large flow of immigrants during the Celtic Tiger era from the late 1990s, the widely accepted narrative of in

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
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Ireland and its relationship with migration
Allen White and Mary Gilmartin

periods as associated with a uni-directional flow of migration. Thus, the 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. The reality, for each of these periods, is more complicated. People migrated to, and continue to migrate to, Ireland in all of the emigrant decades, and people continued to leave Ireland during the Celtic Tiger era, often under very difficult conditions. Now, as in the past, the misinterpretation of demographic data

in Migrations
Michael Breen, Michael Courtney, Iain Mcmenamin, Eoin O’Malley and Kevin Rafter

began to accelerate, averaging 6.4 per cent for each year from 1994 to 2008 (World Bank, 2016). Few economies have experienced such rapid growth. Donovan and Murphy (2013: 19) argue that the Irish economy changed so much that it represented an ‘abrupt leap-frogging from a predominantly pre-industrial economy to a post-industrial high-tech economy’. With Ireland’s economic success, the media abandoned the modernisation narrative and turned to ‘rags-to-riches’ news stories. The Economist’s 2004 article ‘The luck of the Irish’ is typical of the Celtic Tiger era. In rags

in Resilient reporting
Bryan Fanning

globalization of education and skills. From this perspective, Ireland’s experience of high immigration during the Celtic Tiger era needs to be located within the globalization of education and labour markets. McLaughlin’s analysis emphasized the influence of neo-­ liberalism. Analyses of Irish social partnership – the compact between trade unions, the State and the private sector – have emphasized the emergence of a shared competitive corporatist agenda that came to endorse strategies aimed at promoting economic growth above other goals (Rhodes 1997, 126 Bryan Fanning p

in From prosperity to austerity