What rough beast?
Series: Irish Society

This book explores the issue of a collective representation of Ireland after the sudden death of the 'Celtic Tiger' and introduces the aesthetic idea that runs throughout. The focus is on the idea articulated by W. B. Yeats in his famous poem 'The Second Coming'. The book also explores the symbolic order and imaginative structure, the meanings and values associated with house and home, the haunted houses of Ireland's 'ghost estates' and the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household. It examines the sophisticated financial instruments derived from mortgage-backed securities that were a lynchpin of global financialization and the epicentre of the crash, the question of the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household of Europe. A story about fundamental values and principles of fairness and justice is discussed, in particular, the contemporary conflict that reiterates the ancient Irish mythic story of the Tain. The book suggests correspondences between Plato's Republic and the Irish republic in the deformations and devolution of democracy into tyranny. It traces a red thread from the predicament of the ancient Athenians to contemporary Ireland in terms of the need to govern pleonexia, appetites without limits. The political and economic policies and practices of Irish development, the designation of Ireland's 'tax free zones', are also discussed. Finally, the ideal type of person who has been emerging under the auspices of the neoliberal revolution is imagined.

Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

5 Political theologies in the wake of the Celtic Tiger In the wake of the sudden death of the Celtic Tiger Irish business leaders called for the suspension of normal partisan democratic politics and the formation of a one-party government with the will to make crucial decisions necessary to deal with the ‘exceptional circumstances’ occasioned by this ‘national emergency’. The government, they charged, was drifting aimlessly, unable to clarify what needed to be done and unwilling to rule. What was needed, Ireland’s businessmen claimed, was ‘an all party

in The domestic, moral and political economies of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland
Margarita Estévez-Saá

5 Immigration in Celtic Tiger and post-Celtic Tiger novels Margarita Estévez-Saá The history of Ireland and of the Irish is full of stories of deprival, to the extent that they were, for a long time, divested of houses, estates, land, country, and nation, and forced to emigrate. Irish literature, inevitably, has bore witness to this history of deprivation recreating it once and again in an attempt to overcome that trauma, by means of the transformation, reorientation, or re-evaluation of the experience of loss (Balaev, 2008: 164). Recent examples by

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
Bryan Fanning

8 Immigration and the Celtic Tiger Immigration and the Celtic Tiger Bryan Fanning Introduction The lack of substantial opposition to, or even sustained political debate about, post-­ 1990s immigration in the Irish case contrasted strongly with what occurred in several other European countries. The Republic of Ireland quickly and quietly transformed from a mono-­ethnic nation State, one characterized by historical antipathy towards indigenous minorities such as Jews, Protestants and Travellers, into one with a comparatively large immigrant population (Fanning

in From prosperity to austerity
Racism, immigration and the state
Steve Loyal

4 Welcome to the Celtic Tiger: racism, immigration and the state STEVE LOYAL The ‘Celtic Tiger’ has come to provide a convenient shorthand for Ireland’s prosperous and rapidly growing economy. Like all metaphors, it occludes as much as it includes; as a way of representing, it is just as much a way of misrepresenting. The implication of a prosperity in which ‘a rising tide lifts all boats’ masks the growth of poverty and inequality and generalises what is, in fact, only a restricted experience of newly found wealth, within a broader context of class and gender

in The end of Irish history?
Gerry Smyth

5 Popular music and the Celtic Tiger Gerry Smyth Sing when you’re winning On 14 June 2012, the Republic of Ireland soccer team was comprehensively beaten 4–0 at the UEFA Euro Football Championships by the eventual winners, Spain. During an on-­the-­pitch post-­match interview for the UK’s ITV network, the Irish midfielder Keith Andrews praised the quality of the opposition as well as the ‘brilliant’ support of the Irish fans, who continued en masse to sing ‘The Fields of Athenry’ throughout the final minutes of the match. Coverage then returned to the studio

in From prosperity to austerity
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

2 Macroeconomic policy in the Celtic Tiger: a critical reassessment DENIS O’HEARN The miraculous turnaround in the fortunes of the southern Irish economy during the 1990s fooled most experts. The upturn began in the early 1990s, following one of the worst economic periods in the history of the Irish state. The economy then ‘took off’ in 1994 for seven years of sustained high growth that earned the Irish Republic the popular name of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. The Celtic Tiger emerged from a historic expansion in the United States that was centred on the information

in The end of Irish history?
Sinéad Kennedy

5 Irish women and the Celtic Tiger economy SINÉAD KENNEDY The term ‘Celtic Tiger’ has connotations that extend well beyond the realm of the purely economic. It has, for instance, become a metaphor for a new national consensus that constantly reminds us how ‘we have never had it so good’. This chapter takes issue with this consensus and argues instead that, while the recent boom in the Irish Republic has produced enormous wealth for a small minority, the majority of Irish people have benefited little from this apparent economic miracle. In fact, there has been a

in The end of Irish history?
Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

of life that was centred around the communal hearth, the sacred space of the home, the household economy of familial communism ruled by the goddess Hestia as the maternal archetype, constituted and reproduced through the gift relation. Her power has waned. Her fire has been quenched, her pot has gone, and now instead of the fireplace we have an empty place, the free space of the marketplace, ruled by Hermes (Gr.) Mercury (Rm). Hermes is a Trickster archetype, the youthful, homeless, wheeling-dealing deity of the market, sophistry and thievery. Celtic Tiger Ireland

in The domestic, moral and political economies of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland
Catherine Maignant

2 The Celtic Tiger and the new Irish religious market The Celtic Tiger and the religious market Catherine Maignant Many assume that the Celtic Tiger has devoured religion. However, a careful examination of data does not fully support this analysis. In the view of recent developments, it may even be argued that religiosity remained part of life for most Irish people throughout the Celtic Tiger years. John Waters once commented that in spite of Ireland’s disaffection with the Catholic Church ‘there [was] no such thing as an ex-­Catholic’ in Ireland (Waters 1997, p

in From prosperity to austerity