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Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

History and context
Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
The pillars of English associations
Tanja Bueltmann and Donald M. MacRaild

5 Charity and mutual aid: the pillars of English associations In late 1867 and early 1868 Maria Ray, a London-born tailoress thirtythree years of age, was a frequent visitor at the office of the Toronto St George’s Society. As the Society’s records reveal, Maria’s husband, George, had left her a couple of years earlier, and her two children, a fiveyear-old girl and a boy aged two, were both sick. Maria was struggling to make ends meet. The Toronto St George’s Society provided some temporary respite for her in the form of small cash payments. In several months

in The English diaspora in North America
Negotiating confessional difference in early modern Christmas celebrations
Phebe Jensen

 39 2 Protestant faith and Catholic charity: negotiating confessional difference in early modern Christmas celebrations Phebe Jensen At the end of John Taylor’s pamphlet The Complaint of Christmas (1631), the narrator (Christmas), coming to the end of his travels through Catholic and Protestant Europe, sums up the lessons of his trip: The Roman Catholics boast they have Charity living with them (which they reverence as much as they do their Saints) by which, with the help of good works they hope to merit [salvation]. Alas, alas, they are deceived, their Charity

in Forms of faith
Jonathan Benthall

This personal account of the Swiss government funded mediation or conflict resolution project (2005–13) was first published in Gulf Charities and Islamic Philanthropy in the ‘Age of Terror’ and Beyond , edited by Robert Lacey and myself (Gerlach Press, 2014). Special attention is given here to the Gulf

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times

This book is the fruit of twenty years’ reflection on Islamic charities, both in practical terms and as a key to understand the crisis in contemporary Islam. On the one hand Islam is undervalued as a global moral and political force whose admirable qualities are exemplified in its strong tradition of charitable giving. On the other hand, it suffers from a crisis of authority that cannot be blamed entirely on the history of colonialism and stigmatization to which Muslims have undoubtedly been subjected – most recently, as a result of the "war on terror". The book consists of seventeen previously published chapters, with a general Introduction and new prefatory material for each chapter. The first nine chapters review the current situation of Islamic charities from many different viewpoints – theological, historical, diplomatic, legal, sociological and ethnographic – with first-hand data from the United States, Britain, Israel–Palestine, Mali and Indonesia. Chapters 10 to 17 expand the coverage to explore the potential for a twenty-first century "Islamic humanism" that would be devised by Muslims in the light of the human sciences and institutionalized throughout the Muslim world. This means addressing contentious topics such as religious toleration and the meaning of jihad. The intended readership includes academics and students at all levels, professionals concerned with aid and development, and all who have an interest in the future of Islam.

Jonathan Benthall

Pennsylvania, 2014). My contribution appeared as the opening chapter in a volume published later that year, Understanding Islamic Charities , edited by Jon B. Alterman and Karin von Hippel. It is an overview which I still stand by in 2015 despite all the geopolitical changes since 2007. A theme that occurs elsewhere in this book is the unsatisfactory state of academic

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
Sue Wheatcroft

Special day schools, hospital schools, charities 3 SPECIAL DAY SCHOOLS, HOSPITAL SCHOOLS AND THE ROLE OF CHARITIES Special day schools Special day schools in neutral and reception areas managed, on the whole, to carry on as normal during the war years, while in evacuating areas they were re-­ established as residential schools in safer areas, as has been discussed. In some cases, however, parents of both the disabled and the able-­bodied were unwilling to allow their children to be evacuated, leaving the problem of where they could be educated. As all schools

in Worth saving
Carol Helmstadter

Introduction Florence Nightingale received an enormous amount of press for her work in the Crimean War, at first often critical but later highly laudatory. In an age when class was so rigidly delineated and social status meant so much, the lady of high estate who nursed working-class soldiers and who organized the first official British army female nursing service became a national heroine. By contrast, despite the high profile the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul enjoyed in the British press at the

in Beyond Nightingale
George Campbell Gosling

2 Medicine and charity in Bristol Before the NHS, British healthcare had no national system. 1 While policies could be agreed and pursued by the Ministry of Health, the British Medical Association (BMA), the Institute of Hospital Almoners or any other national body, decision-making was distinctly local. For public hospitals this meant either the poor law union or the municipal authority. In the voluntary hospital

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48