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David Ganz

P ARIS, BNF LATIN 4629, is a manuscript containing Frankish lawcodes, capitularies of Charlemagne and formulae, most probably copied in Bourges at the start of the ninth century. 1 It has been linked with the court of Charlemagne by Donald Bullough. 2 Amid the legal texts it contains a dialogue that offers insights into some of the questions Charlemagne’s subjects

in Frankland
Jinty Nelson

19 Charlemagne and the bishops Jinty Nelson When Mayke de Jong set about the subject of ‘Charlemagne’s Church’ in 2005, she began with a beautiful vignette of a bishop, Leidrad of Lyon.1 He could not be called typical – there was no such thing as a typical bishop – but he was one of those on whom Charlemagne relied most in the latter years of his reign to press ahead with the Church’s emendatio. Leidrad, appointed by the king himself in 797, drafted in to his see and province from Bavaria, promoted to archiepiscopal rank in 807, is atypically well documented

in Religious Franks
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Religion and power in the Frankish Kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong

This book, written in honour of Mayke De Jong, offers twenty-five essays focused upon the importance of religion to Frankish politics. It deals with religious discourse and political polemic in studies that take up the themes of identity, and the creative deployment of the language of the Old Testament within Frankish society. The book explores how the use of ethnic rhetoric in a Christian context shaped medieval perceptions of community. It shows that the Carolingian way of dealing with the Adoptionist challenge was to allow a conversation between the Spanish bishops and their Frankish opponents to take place. Charlemagne's role in the Vita Alcuini as a guardian of orthodoxy who sought to settle a controversy by organising and supervising a theological debate was striking. The book also discusses the admonition of an abbot of Frankish origin who came from southern France and made his monastic career in southern Italy. It showcases three letter manuscripts that share certain features but are different in other aspects. The first manuscript is a collection of the Moral Letters from Seneca to his pupil Lucilius , Paris , BnF, lat. 8658A. The book demonstrates that the lists of amici, viventes et defuncti reflected how the royal monastery was interacting with ruling elites, at different levels, and how such interactions were an essential part of its identity. It also examines the context of Monte Cassino's fading into the background, in the conviction that both political and religious concerns were at play.

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Paganism, infidelity and biblical punishment in the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae
Robert Flierman

10 Religious Saxons: paganism, infidelity and biblical punishment in the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae Robert Flierman Charlemagne’s Church was not an exclusively Frankish Church.1 The community of the faithful over which the Carolingians claimed divinely ordained rule was multi-ethnic, the result of decades’ worth of Frankish military expansion. Most of the peoples that came to be incorporated into the Frankish realm over the course of the eighth century were Christian. Some, however, were not, in which case conquest could lead to (attempted) conversion. A

in Religious Franks
Sven Meeder

persisting Italian fancy for figure-hugging clothes, or the more laissez-faire French approach to accoutring. The passage comes from the letter accompanying a copy of the Rule of Benedict that was sent by Abbot Theodemar of Monte Cassino to Charlemagne. It represents a seminal episode in the monastic reforms instigated by the Carolingians:  the arrival at the Frankish court of a ‘pure’ version of the Regula Benedicti from Benedict’s own foundation of Monte Cassino. In many undergraduate handbooks on the Middle Ages this episode is presented as an important moment in

in Religious Franks
Thomas Wittkamp

Notker the Stammerer, a learned monk of St Gall, between 885 and 887 completed his Gesta Karoli Magni (Deeds of Charlemagne), a collection of tales about Charlemagne written on behalf of Emperor Charles the Fat. 1 Until the middle of the twentieth century, many historians disdained Notker's Gesta due to the anecdotal and unhistorical character of many of its tales, 2 and it has been only gradually rehabilitated since the 1940s. Scholars have

in Early medieval militarisation
Dealing with the Adoptionist controversy at the court of Charlemagne
Rutger Kramer

2 Adopt, adapt and improve: dealing with the Adoptionist controversy at the court of Charlemagne Rutger Kramer In the late eighth century, the Carolingian court heard of a potential threat to Christian stabilitas that required their immediate attention. The bishops Elipandus of Toledo (c. 755–c. 808)  and Felix of Urgell (c. 780–99, †818) preached an understanding of the nature of the Trinity that, as far as the Carolingians were concerned, dissented from what they regarded as orthodoxy. According to these Spanish bishops, Christ was the adoptive son of God, a

in Religious Franks
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The ‘Carolingian moment’
Paul Fouracre

. Given that no oil came north from Spain, that left Italy as a possible source. Although the Italian evidence generally showed very local production of small amounts of oil, it was also seen that there was development of slightly larger-scale production in the Italian lakes area, especially around Lakes Garda and Como. A possible warming in the climate may be one explanation for a northward shift in the cultivation of olives, but another might be growing demand for oil from both the Lombard and the Frankish rulers. In 773 Charlemagne (ruled 768–814) invaded Italy, and

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Yitzhak Hen

8 Alcuin, Seneca and the Brahmins of India Yitzhak Hen Sometime between 800 and 804, Alcuin of York, the retired adviser of the Frankish king, presented Charlemagne with a small compendium of two unique treatises  – the apocryphal correspondence between St Paul and Seneca, and the letters supposedly exchanged between Alexander the Great and Dindimus, king of the Brahmins. Alcuin also added a short poem of his own, in which he introduces this gift as a didactic compendium for the benefit of the Frankish king: Here one can read on the gens of the Brahmins, which

in Religious Franks
Reccared and Charlemagne
Janneke Raaijmakers and Irene van Renswoude

3 The ruler as referee in theological debates: Reccared and Charlemagne Janneke Raaijmakers and Irene van Renswoude In 799, Charlemagne organised a disputation at the palace of Aachen between his court theologian, Alcuin of York, and the Spanish bishop Felix of Urgell. The king had summoned the two men to his court to settle a contested theological matter in the presence of a council of bishops. The issue at stake was the correct use of the term adoptio, a question that had far-reaching christological implications that threatened to divide the bishops within

in Religious Franks