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Pauline Stafford

In the night of Saturday, 20 July 1991, a group of far-right extremists calling themselves variously the ‘groupe’, ‘club’ or ‘commando Charles Martel’ firebombed an Algerian social club in the drab Paris suburb of Bondy. The attack was, it seems, the last of several similar outrages that this nasty little group perpetrated in Marseilles and Paris between 1973 and 1991. 1 In each case the intended victims were people of North African origins. It is to be assumed that the group called themselves after Charles Martel because this early medieval figure, who died

in Law, laity and solidarities
The Chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg
Author: Simon MacLean

The career, mental world and writings of Regino, abbot of Prüm, were all defined by the Carolingian empire and, more particularly, by its end. The high Ottonian period of the mid-tenth century also witnessed a revival of historiography, exemplified by the work of the two major authors who wrote about the rise of the dynasty. The first of these was Liutprand of Cremona, whose Antapodosis, a history of European politics from 888 until around 950, and Historia Ottonis, a focused account of events surrounding Otto's imperial coronation, were both written in the earlier 960s. The second was Adalbert, who most probably wrote his continuation to the Chronicle in 967/968. Regino's Chronicle, dedicated to Bishop Adalbero of Augsburg in the year 908, was the last work of its kind for several decades, and as such its author can be regarded as the last great historian of the Carolingian Empire. The Chronicle is divided into two books. The first, subtitled 'On the times of the Lord's incarnation', begins with the incarnation of Christ and proceeds as far as the death of Charles Martel in 741. The second 'On the deeds of the kings of the Franks' takes the story from the death of Charles Martel through to 906. The much shorter continuation by Adalbert of Magdeburg enjoys a place in the canon of works relating to the history of the earliest German Reich and consequently has received considerably more attention.

The historical context of the ninth-century Cologne Codex Carolinus manuscript (Codex Vindobonensis 449)
Dorine van Espelo

24 Rulers, popes and bishops: the ­ historical context of the ninth-century Cologne Codex Carolinus manuscript (Codex Vindobonensis 449) Dorine van Espelo A unique source in many respects, the Codex epistolaris Carolinus comprises ninety-nine papal letters that were sent to the Carolingian court between 739 and 790.1 These are mostly addressed to the Frankish rulers Charles Martel, Pippin III, Carloman and Charlemagne, but there are also three letters grouped together in the collection about Adoptionism sent by Pope Hadrian I to the Spanish bishops. The letters

in Religious Franks
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

recounts the rest of Pippin’s life, however, with much heavier reliance on the wording of his sources, largely the Continuator of Fredegar . He returns to his own words for 714 in order to give us his version of the beginning of Charles Martel’s rule. Although he begins these entries with Dionysian years, they can hardly be called annalistic; we are confronted with the full account of a chronicler

in Late Merovingian France
Susan Reynolds

Ages of what looks like a modified form of expropriation is what has traditionally been seen as the plundering, spoliation or secularization of Church land by Charles Martel and his descendants, the Carolingian kings and emperors. 15 Although they, like other rulers and lords, sometimes bullied the clergy, ejected bishops and gave their sees to others, and may have taken land from

in Frankland
Essays in honour of Susan Reynolds

This book is dedicated to Susan Reynolds and celebrates the work of a scholar whose views have been central to reappraisals of the position of the laity in the Middle Ages. The themes and concerns include a medieval world in which the activity and attitudes of the laity are not obscured by ideas expressed more systematically in theoretical treatises by ecclesiastics; a world in which lay collective action and thought take centre stage. Reynolds has written her own Middle Ages, especially in her innovative book Kingdoms and Communities whose influence can be seen in so many of the essays. Collectivities, solidarities and collective action are everywhere in these essays, as Reynolds has shown us to expect them to be. Collective action was carried out often in pursuit of social peace, but it existed precisely because there was discord. Of the narratives and interpretative frameworks with which Reynolds's work has been concerned, the book has least to say directly on the debate over feudalism. The book engages many of the themes of Reynolds's work and pursues some of the issues which are prominent in re-examinations of the medieval world and in studies of the medieval laity. It discusses secular aristocratic attitudes towards judicial combat within the broader setting of fictional 'treason trials' of the later twelfth century. Although kinship did not start out as an explicit and overt theme of the book, it emerges as a leitmotiv, perhaps in part because when feudalism is removed, kinship is thrown into sharper relief.

Politics and ecclesiology in the ninth century
Tom Noble

in it, namely: ‘letters, which in the time of the Lord Charles his grandfather [i.e. Charles Martel] of blessed memory and also his glorious father Pippin and from his own time were known to be directed to them, and are about the highest Apostolic See of St Peter the Apostle and about the imperium [i.e. Carolingian rule or realm]’.4 This preface transmutes into the lemma, or heading, introducing the letter that opens the collection, written by Gregory III to Charles Martel in 739, and underlines the importance of the papal letters and the need to safeguard them as

in Religious Franks
Competition and cooperation?
Régine Le Jan

for Lothar, co-emperor, and his wife Irmengard. Adding Louis, Gisela and Charles, however, changed the meaning of the list and must have been negotiated between Louis the Pious, his son Lothar and the empress Judith. The second list (p. 114) is different. The first sixteen names were those of the Carolingian family, in order from its founding ancestor, Charles Martel, mayor of the palace, who died in 741, to the last dead woman, Empress Irmengard, the first wife of Louis the Pious. Charles Martel was followed by his two sons, King Pippin the Short and Carloman

in Religious Franks
Brigitte Kasten

labelled a stepmother, not by near-contemporary chroniclers but by the author of the Annales Mettenses Priores , writing c.805. 80 By that time, the descendants of Plectrude’s stepson Charles Martel were firmly established as the royal line, and Plectrude could then be blamed for intriguing against Charles with the aim of excluding him from the succession to his father, though Pippin himself had wished to leave him as sole heir. 81 This version of history was false, for the nearcontemporary sources clearly state that Pippin had decided sometime before his death to

in Law, laity and solidarities
Abstract only
Pauline Stafford, Janet L. Nelson, and Jane Martindale

-Carolingian world), and the concept of ‘feudalism’ reinforced the preoccupation with hierarchical structures and with vertical rather than horizontal bonds. Such versions of medieval development have tended to marginalise or even ignore areas – like most of western Britain – which the models do not fit. Some contributors have confronted these problems head on, like Rees Davies with his ‘western British but mainly Welsh . . . additamentum to Susan Reynolds’s great book’ and Paul Fouracre’s exposé of how mistaken was the old conclusion that Charles Martel’s ‘response to the

in Law, laity and solidarities