Giuliana Chamedes

institutions and practices that purportedly united the Atlantic World. According to this view, the United States had much to teach European countries, most of which had strayed far from democracy in the interwar years and needed to be brought back into the fold. The second vision – advanced by the Holy See, a handful of European Christian Democratic leaders, and certain key American Catholic opinion-makers – did not have democracy as its endgame. Rather, it proposed to build a peaceful post-war order through the reconstitution of the ‘Christian West’, which was defined as an

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
Author: Deborah Youngs

One of the key aims of this book is to offer a synthesis of the main findings of current research on age. It is intended as an outline survey and consequently the scope of the book is deliberately broad: it covers two centuries, considers the large land mass of Western Europe with its diverse languages, customs and cultures, and ranges across the social spectrum. The book focuses solely on the Christian West, including consideration on the extent to which social rank influenced life expectancy, the methods and goals of upbringing, marriage patterns and funerary memorialisation. The book also demonstrates how extensive that range can be. Examples are drawn from manorial accounts, tax assessments, spiritual writings, didactic literature, romances, elegies, art and architecture. The main thrust is that age formed an essential part of a person's identity in late medieval Europe. During adolescence, men and women progressively took on their adult roles. Three chapters are devoted to educating girls. The book discusses young people's period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It draws attention to pious young women who fought against marriage and wanted a chaste life. Divergences between northern and southern Europe in terms of marriage patterns, family formation, opportunities for women and attitudes towards death and its rituals are discussed. The book shows that attitudes towards the undeveloped young meant that children had few legal responsibilities. Another aim of the book is to consider the changing opportunities and possibilities for people as they progressed through life.

The TransAtlantic reconsidered brings together established experts from Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies – two fields that are closely connected in their historical and disciplinary development as well as with regard to the geographical area of their interest. Questions of methodology and boundaries of periodization tend to separate these research fields. However, in order to understand the Atlantic World and transatlantic relations today, Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies should be considered together. The scholars represented in this volume have helped to shape, re-shape, and challenge the narrative(s) of the Atlantic World and can thus (re-)evaluate its conceptual basis in view of historiographical developments and contemporary challenges. This volume thus documents and reflects on the changes within Transatlantic Studies during the last decades. New perspectives on research reconceptualize how we think about the Atlantic World. At a time when many political observers perceive a crisis in transatlantic relations, critical evaluation of past narratives and frameworks will provide an academic foundation to move forward.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

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Deborah Youngs

centuries, considers the large land mass of Western Europe with its diverse languages, customs and cultures, and ranges across the social spectrum. Such an ambitious task has its practical limitations, and the constraints of time and space have made it necessary to be selective. Plans to cover Jewish and Muslim life cycles had to be changed, and the book will focus solely on the Christian West. 7 The balance of the study

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
The structure of Islamic toleration
Jonathan Benthall

-questioning of the Christian West which dates back to Bartolomé Las Casas and Michel Montaigne and to which cultural anthropologists have contributed since the nineteenth century. I pondered here on whether there can be a Muslim equivalent to Lévi-Strauss, who treated Amerindian myth as equally worthy of respect as European philosophy and psychology. For instance, in The Jealous Potter

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
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Laura Schwartz

it disavows and thus, since it is primarily a product of the Latin Christian West, it is biased in favour of Christianity. 20 Secularity, it has been argued, rests upon a norm of masculine rationality which excludes women and their experiences, while theories of how secularisation occurs are inherently male-centred, whereby ‘when men leave religion, religion is said to be dying, regardless of its continuity in women

in Infidel feminism
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Ronald Dworkin

tore nations apart, and tolerance seemed the only sensible policy. But this is no longer true. Religious freedom benefits mainly powerless minorities in the largely Christian West, who could not cause much trouble even if they were suppressed. In the Muslim world other religions are suppressed with no apparent civic risk at all. And, of course, even if we had good reasons of state for religious tolerance, this would not make freedom of religion a basic human right. It would make it only a wise policy choice. Can we justify making religion special through a kind of

in Religion and rights
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Simon Ditchfield and Helen Smith

women’s writing has similarly contested the view that religion was an uncontroversial and limiting space for women, insisting upon the urgency of devotional, meditative, and polemical writing within a charged confessional economy, and arguing that ‘the history of the Christian West is replete with stories of women who combined an exploitation of the liberating texts already available in the scripture

in Conversions
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E.A. Jones

Christian West are Peter F. Anson, The Call of the Desert: The solitary life in the Christian church (London: SPCK, 1964), and Isabel Colegate’s A Pelican in the Wilderness: Hermits, solitaries and recluses (London: HarperCollins, 2002). 2 Its predecessor in this respect is Clay, Hermits and Anchorites

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550