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A quiet revolution
Author: Simha Goldin

The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.

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Simha Goldin

Medieval Jewish society saw itself as being under siege in an ongoing struggle for survival within a Christian population that abounded with threats and temptations, both economic and intellectual. The situation was defined by Jewish society as an emergency situation, and so it recruited all its resources to be able to deal with it. 1 The specific circumstances of the

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Norman Bonney

This chapter examines the evolution and development of the accession and coronation oaths of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and then variously 'Ireland' and 'Northern Ireland'. It raises some issues about their continuing relevance in the twenty-first century and the need publicly and fundamentally to reassess them and evaluate their continuing suitability for the contemporary era. The coronation oaths are required by the Coronation Oath Act of 1688, the Act of Settlement of 1701 and the Accession Declaration Act of 1910. Unlike the declaration of Protestant faith, another early requirement for action by a new monarch, the oath for 'the security of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland' required by the Acts of Union of 1706-1707 has remained unchanged. The religions of the non-Christian populations in the dominions, India and the colonies were not of such a great concern.

in Monarchy, religion and the state
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

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Schematic views of the Holy City, 1100–1300
Suzanne Conklin Akbari and Asa Simon Mittman

diagrammatic map (which dates from soon after the mid-twelfth century, perhaps based on an earlier exemplar), the prose map of the ‘City of Jerusalem’ is an artefact of a peculiar time, an in-between time. After the Fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem became a government in exile, centred after 1192 on the fortified stronghold of Acre. From that vantage point, the French-speaking Latin Christian population recalled the streets of the Holy City that was no longer available to them, both in the form of late twelfth-century street maps of Jerusalem and

in Aspects of knowledge
Christina H. Lee

thinkers such as Pedro de Valencia, who opposed the expulsion and rallied Old Christians to intermarry with Moriscos in order to absorb them into the dominant culture, might have misread some of the Old Christian perceptions of Moriscos.16 It is quite possible that a significant section of the Old Christian population did not necessarily believe that the comprehensive erasure of Morisco culture was necessary and were willing to cohabit with Moriscos. I have consulted three legal cases in which Old Christians do not even consider Morisco cultural practices to be a problem

in The anxiety of sameness in early modern Spain
Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22
Emilia Salvanou

the nation as the protagonist in national struggles should be avoided, so as to bring to light the fluidity of identities during the process of state building and the forged character of national homogeneity, an aspect of which was the negotiation of identities at a grassroots, community level.6 This chapter is concerned with the construction of this homogeneity in the Balkan region and aims to underline the fact that the process of nation building was both dynamic and full of contested identities, especially within the Christian population. It therefore argues that

in Europe on the move
Don Brothwell

Nubia’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 5, 368–76. Judd, M. A. (2006), ‘Continuity of interpersonal violence between Nubian communities’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131, 324–33. Knip, A. S. (1970), ‘Metrical and non-metrical measurements on the skeletal remains of Christian populations from two sites in Sudanese Nubia’, Koninkl Nederland Akademie van Wetenschappen 73, 433–68. Leigh, R. W. (1934), ‘Notes on the somatology and pathology of ancient Egypt’, Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 84, 1–54. Mollison, T. (1929

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Humanitarianism and the Victorian diplomat
Michelle Tusan

, ultimately leading to his appointment as Disraeli’s Ambassador at Constantinople in the late 1870s. Dubbed the ‘first Liberal Imperialist’ by his biographer, he believed Britain should ‘maintain the Turkish Empire in its present state until the Christian population may be ready to succeed the Mussulman [sic]’. 15 ‘My conviction’, Layard declared, ‘is that it is possible to do

in The cultural construction of the British world
Ulrike Ehret

to the Arab and Christian population what the Bolsheviks have done to the people of Russia. That an Arab and Christian population of 03-ChurchNationRace_094-117 100 28/11/11 14:42 Page 100 Church, nation and race some 800,000 people should be put and kept under the heel of an imported Jewish minority by British bayonets – a surely unparalleled atrocity!31 More moderate publications, such as The Month, The Blackfriars and The Tablet were similarly concerned with an alleged overwhelming Jewish power in the heart of Christian civilisation.32 Donald Attwater

in Church, nation and race