The Puritan Revolution of mid-seventeenth-century England produced an explosion of new and important political thinking. In addition to most famous thinkers, Thomas Hobbes, Sir Robert Filmer and the Levellers, there are other important figures who have been relatively neglected, of whom Anthony Ascham is one. This book is the first full-scale study of Ascham's political thought. Ascham's works were intended to convince lay Presbyterians and royalists to adhere to the policy of national pacification implemented from 1648 by the Independent 'party' within Parliament. From 1648 to 1650 Ascham's propaganda primarily dealt with the issue of the validity of oaths, and insisted on the reciprocal relation between obedience and protection. The first part of Ascham's Discourse focused on 'what things, and how farre a man may lawfully conform to the power and commands of those who hold a kingdome divided by civill warre'. Ascham adopted a twofold line of argument: in the first, he sought to demonstrate that war was consistent with natural law and scripture. Secondly, not all types of war were consistent with the Christian religion and the natural law of self-preservation, only the defensive war. Ascham's natural law theory, which he drew from Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes and John Selden, had therefore both civil and religious implications. Ascham proposed a synthesis between Grotius and Niccolò Machiavelli, underlining the priority of state order over political participation, and justifying war as a means of accessing power only to confirm the necessity of re-establishing order.
domesticity and supposedly feminine activities
like sewing and cooking.
The missions thus contributed to the tremendous outburst of Christian church
building around the world, producing literally thousands of churches in colonial
territories on all five continents. Almost everywhere, this alien architectural
incursion occurred in areas where there were significant non-Christianreligions
– notably Islam in Africa, the Middle East and throughout Asia, as well as
Hinduism and Buddhism, not to mention the religious systems of indigenous
peoples outside these world religions
The devotional landscape of medieval
Irish cultural Catholicism inter hibernicos
et inter anglicos, c.1200–c.1550
In his 1985 survey entitled The Irish Catholic Experience, Patrick J.
Corish points to ‘the complexity of the patterns of culture in which
Christianity existed in Ireland in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries,
while noting that the source material allows little more than an impressionistic survey of what was distinctive about the Christianreligion inter
hibernicos as against its equivalent inter anglicos.1 Difficulties arising
rejection of something else. The pacifist regards non-violent action in
much the same way that the militarist regards war – as an expressive rather than instrumental activity with the power to transform
man and the world. In this more morally ambitious form pacifism
is chosen as a way of life and a positive good, not simply as a means
of avoiding moral contamination.
For Christian pacifists, for example, the renunciation of all
forms of violence is seen at the same time as the affirmation of
the ethic of love that is at the heart of the Christianreligion. It
Emendatio and effectus in Frankish
The effectiveness of worship and prayer was a principle concern of the Franks
and took a central position in their interpretation and design of the Christianreligion. The Carolingians in particular are known for the way they accentuated a correct practice of worship, including a linguistically correct expression
of ritual texts, in order to further the effectiveness of the Eucharistic liturgy
and of prayer. As Mayke de Jong phrases it so poignantly: ‘Obviously, the
Carolingian God liked to be
Contemporary witchcraft and the Lancashire witches
The Murrayite thesis having collapsed, then, modern Witches, Wiccans and Pagans 11 had to come to terms with strong arguments against the survival of a pre-Christianreligion indigenous to Britain and Europe: although charms and spells, folk customs, magic, and the ancient mysteries were pagan survivals, ‘paganism had not survived with them, for they were the work of Christians who had detached them from any previous religious context’. 12 One option open to practitioners was to do as sociologist Ken Rees suggests, and act ‘as if’ the myth were true. 13 The
provide some measure of unity and order on the Far West. The most important of these was the Church. It maintained, against all odds, the rudiments of a common Western identity through the Dark Ages. It kept the Christianreligion alive; it conserved the remnants of the Roman civilization; it provided a reservoir of literacy. It also spread the light of religion, learning and literacy to the north-western peripheries.
The Church became an important force partly because it offered the only ordering structure of central administration in these chaotic times
This chapter offers the first academic account of one of Indian cinemas’ largest cult phenomena: the horror films of the Ramsay brothers. The Ramsay brothers were most prolific and popular between the late 1970s and the late 1980s, when India experienced the rise of Hindu fundamentalism. During this decade, as before, the Indian state sought to maintain strict control of the economy – a strategy which has historically enabled the film industry to function as a parallel (and not always legitimate) channel for the circulation of money. In this context, small, short-term speculative capital thrived, and the Ramsay brothers were one instance of it. The second part of the chapter examines the ways in which the Ramsay brothers’ horror films capitalised on ingredients that, while borrowed largely from the Hindu and Christian religions, staged new, secular and forward-looking dimensions of Indian subjectivity.
The creation of a children’s socialist movement and the ‘religion of socialism’
Chapter three examines the primary characteristics of the Socialist Sunday School (SSS) movement’s practice and its articulated purpose. Firstly, this chapter outlines the emergence of SSSs within the existing socialist initiatives for children. In doing so, this chapter traces the progression of this community-based schooling movement from a small scattering of schools to a British alliance, complete with a range of institutional and cultural apparatuses including school meeting agendas, alternative socialist curriculum and songbooks. Secondly, the SSSs’ creation of a children’s radical education is explored, including their development of socialist cultures of childhood, alternative pedagogies and curricula. Thirdly and finally, the ways in which the SSS movement drew upon the cultural resources of the Christian religion to develop its educational practices is analysed. This discussion investigates the ways in which the SSS movement was related to the ‘religion of socialism’ approach in Britain, combining a concern for socialist morality and ethics with socialist politics as a means to connect socialism to children’s education.
was to demonstrate the existence of one God, the
significance of Christ’s life, the authenticity of scripture, and
its moral doctrine. Like Arminius, Grotius conceived human will as
predisposed to the good by means of natural law. Finally, the last three
chapters asserted the superiority of the Christianreligion over
paganism, Islam, and Hebraism.
De Veritate’ s theological