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This book is about the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world. Before the seventh century there had been dualist religions like Gnosticism and Manichaeism which contained Christian elements, but they were theosophical movements, based on myths which were not Christian, although they could be interpreted in a Christian sense. The Christian dualism preached by Constantine of Mananalis in the mid-seventh century was truly Christian because it was based on the authority of the New Testament alone. Christian dualism began with Constantine of Mananalis who lived in the reign of Constans II, and the Byzantine Empire ended with the conquest of Constantinople by the Sultan Mehmet II in 1453. The book focuses on two areas of Christian dualism. The first is the Tondrakian movement in Armenia, which appears to be cognate with, but not identical to, Paulicianism. Superficially Bogomilism seemed to have a good deal in common with Paulicianism. The second area which the authors have only dealt with in a limited way is Bosnia, which though on the frontiers of the Byzantine world was not part of it. Tefrice became a refuge for Paulicians who were persecuted in the Byzantine Empire, and Carbeas is said also to have offered attractive terms to non-Paulician Byzantines who would come and settle in this dangerous frontier zone.

Marjory Harper

poverty that was sometimes aggravated to epidemic proportions by specific economic crises. Undergirding the relief programmes of most of these charities was an evangelical Christian commitment to offer both practical and spiritual help to needy individuals – a commitment that was increasingly reinforced by a eugenic confidence that the future of Britain and the empire could best be secured by the judicious transfer of suitable recruits from the debilitating environment of the mother country’s city slums before their

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
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Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

Christians were very great. When he had marched to Bersinicia, at about mile-post thirty on the imperial road, Leo the patrician and strategos of the western forces and John Asplaces, patrician and strategos of Macedonia, were very anxious to attack them, but were prevented by the emperor, who was badly advised. While the city and the archbishop prayed in the church of the Holy Apostles some of the

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
Exegesis and political controversy in the 1550s
Adrian Streete

What is Christian liberty? 1 And is it compatible with female rule? This essay considers both of these questions as they were debated in early modern Europe, but particularly in the work of a number of English and Scottish Protestant political theologians during the 1550s. I argue that, on the one hand, writers like John Ponet, John Knox and Christopher

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700
Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIAN DUALISM Constantine of Mananalis, who was born in the reign of Constans II (641–68), was considered by Byzantine theologians to be the founder of Christian dualism in the sense that, while teaching that the material universe was not the creation of the Good God but of an autonomous evil principle, he would only accept

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
John Anderson

rule. Nonetheless, many writers have made a connection between Christian thought and democratic ideals. In De Gruchy’s words: western Christendom undoubtedly provided the womb within which the democratic system, as we now know it, gestated, and it also contributed decisively to the shaping of the democratic vision through its witness, albeit ambiguous and severely compromised, to the message of the Hebrew prophets. 1 And for De Gruchy it was the Old Testament critique of injustice and the New Testament promise of

in Christianity and democratisation
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David Hardiman

for four beds. The building work was completed in the summer of 1905, just before the rain came. 33 Birkett’s initial medical assistant, Reuben, was replaced in August 1905 by an Indian Christian called John Brand. He was to work with her in Lusadiya for nearly two decades. Writing in January 1906, Jane Birkett reported that Brand had been a success from the start. He had at once gained the confidence

in Missionaries and their medicine
Anna Bocking-Welch

Christian Aid: the new face of Christian responsibility Religion does not figure strongly in histories of British decolonisation. While scholarship does assess how Christian churches overseas adapted and adjusted to the declining empire, little attention has been paid to the changing relationship between religion and empire within Britain at this time. Sarah Stockwell's work on Archbishop Fisher has reinstated the upper Anglican Church hierarchy in our wider understanding of the political discussions and processes through

in British civic society at the end of empire
Bernard O’Donoghue

20 Catholic-Christian identity and modern Irish poetry Bernard O’Donoghue Modern Irish poetry in English has been dominated by two major figures: both Nobel Prize winners, recognised as the leading practitioners of their time. The first, W. B. Yeats, was a southern Irish Protestant (though for much of his lifetime the northern–southern divide was not such a stark one: he was nearly 60 when the Irish Free State was declared); the second, Seamus Heaney, is a Northern Irish Catholic. So the first notable reflection is that each of them belonged to the ideological

in Irish Catholic identities
Welsh Presbyterianism in Sylhet, Eastern Bengal, 1860–1940
Aled Jones

lived historical experience of colonisation, where colonial strategies for the reshaping of individuals and their social systems were simultaneously absorbed, contained, resisted and subverted. 1 Rarely is this more evident than in the history of Christian foreign mission. 2 European efforts to convert people of many faiths to Christianity, particularly in

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world