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Christian dualism originated in the reign of Constans II (641-68). It was a popular religion, which shared with orthodoxy an acceptance of scriptual authority and apostolic tradition and held a sacramental doctrine of salvation, but understood all these in a radically different way to the Orthodox Church. One of the differences was the strong part demonology played in the belief system. This text traces, through original sources, the origins of dualist Christianity throughout the Byzantine Empire, focusing on the Paulician movement in Armenia and Bogomilism in Bulgaria. It presents not only the theological texts, but puts the movements into their social and political context.

Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIAN DUALISM Constantine of Mananalis, who was born in the reign of Constans II (641–68), was considered by Byzantine theologians to be the founder of Christian dualism in the sense that, while teaching that the material universe was not the creation of the Good God but of an autonomous evil principle, he would only accept

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
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Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

This chapter contains a selection of translated and annotated texts on the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world.

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
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Hamlet and early modern stage ghosts
Elisabeth Bronfen and Beate Neumeier

nocturnal adventures by having Tankerlay’s body dug up and tipped into Gormire Lake (James, ‘Twelve Medieval Ghost Stories’ 418). 12 Unlike Andrugio and the Byland ghosts, classical phantoms are disembodied shades. 13 Kyd’s Andrea makes Christian dualism confirm the classical tradition. Andrea is now a spirit, transformed by death from the time ‘When this eternal

in Gothic Renaissance
Commodification, corporeality and paranormal romance in Angela Carter’s beast tales
Bill Hughes

is opposed to spirit in Christian dualism, where the price to pay for being human is the mortification of the flesh. But Carter overturns this. ‘Peter and the Wolf’ takes place in a feudal world before the onset of generalised commodity exchange that is capitalism, yet it is at the threshold of modernity. In the tale, an old village woman goes up to see her daughter in the mountains as she is due to give birth. She finds the mother dead and no child but traces of wolves. Some years later, her grandson Peter goes up into the mountains with his

in In the company of wolves
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

. In God’s appointed time, this world would come to an end. The earthly city would be swallowed up in flames, and good and evil men would be separated. When Alaric the Goth sacked Rome in 410, Augustine decided that the whole, gigantic, bureaucracy of the Roman Empire was destined to unravel. Driven by his apocalyptic expectations he wrote furiously. His manuscript grew to gigantic proportions, but allowed Augustine to reason his way towards an escape. He entitled the result City of God. With Christian dualism as his vantage point, Augustine argues

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)