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C. E. Beneš

Part four describes Genoa’s conversion to Christianity in late antiquity. This part has three chapters: chapter one introduces Roman polytheism (‘idolatry’ or ‘paganism’); chapter two claims that Genoa was the first city in Italy, or one of the first, to be converted to Christianity. Chapter three uses logic to make the same claim.

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
The Empire of Clouds in north-east India
Author: Andrew J. May

In 1841, the Welsh sent their first missionary, Thomas Jones, to evangelise the tribal peoples of the Khasi Hills of north-east India. This book follows Jones from rural Wales to Cherrapunji, the wettest place on earth and now one of the most Christianised parts of India. It is about the piety and practices, the perceptions and prejudices of people in early nineteenth century Wales. The book is also about the ways in which the religious ambitions of those same people operated upon the lives and ideas of indigenous societies of the distant Khasi Hills of north-eastern India. It foregrounds broader political, scientific, racial and military ideologies that mobilised the Khasi Hills into an interconnected network of imperial control. Its themes are universal: crises of authority, the loneliness of geographical isolation, sexual scandal, greed and exploitation, personal and institutional dogma, individual and group morality. In analysing the individual lives that flash in and out of this history, the book is a performance within the effort to break down the many dimensions of distance that the imperial scene prescribes. It pays attention to a 'networked conception of imperial interconnection'. The book discusses Jones's evangelising among the Khasis as well as his conflicts with church and state authority. It also discusses some aspects of the micro-politics of mission and state in the two decades immediately following Thomas Jones's death. While the Welsh missionary impact was significant, its 'success' or indeed its novelty, needs to be measured against the pre-existing activities of British imperialists.

The perception of religious motives of warfare against non-Christian enemies in ninth-century chronicles
Hans-Werner Goetz

To discuss the perception and comprehension of war and ‘the military’ within the aims of the current volume, the Christianisation of warfare is an important factor. As a small contribution within this larger frame, I have chosen a very specific theme that nevertheless seems to be typically medieval: the religious (or religiously motivated) war in Carolingian times as it was perceived by contemporary chroniclers of the ninth century (whose convictions need not, of course, be identical with those who waged these wars). My general question

in Early medieval militarisation
Andrew J. May

and old histories of the Khasi mission is the pre-eminence of Jones as founding missionary and bringer of the book: the prime architect of the Christianisation of the hill tribes, the de novo ‘father’ of Khasi literature in his role as the man who put the Khasi language into written form using Welsh orthography. When Jones disappointed the small

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
The Edinburgh World Missionary Conference, 1910
Felicity Jensz

being D. not F.). It is still impossible for me to decide whether I can be in Edinburgh.’ 1 He ultimately received permission from his university to participate in the conference. He had an important function as the Secretary of the North American commissioners for Commission III on Education in Relation to the Christianisation of National Life, and was largely responsible for the final written

in Missionaries and modernity
National origins, seafaring and the Christian impulse
Peter Yeandle

, ‘there came a time when they [the English], too, learnt about Christ, and then their love of freedom and justice was of more worth than ever, when it was backed up by the truth that maketh free’. 54 The English were imbued with proselytising properties even prior to their own Christianisation. Given the frequency with which this story occurs over a range of reading books, it is

in Citizenship, Nation, Empire
Felicity Jensz

topic of debate throughout the century demonstrates the earnest desire to exchange ideas and offer recommendations as to the best way to recruit, maintain and train people into missionary schooling in order to facilitate the Christianisation of British colonies. Discussions at Liverpool on education noted the urgency of female education. The focus on female education in missionary fields reflected broader

in Missionaries and modernity
Author: Laura Varnam

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

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Felicity Jensz

Christianisation was ‘a mere matter of clothes and whitewash’. 1 Experts who congregated at Edinburgh used the lessons from the mission field to conceptually reassert the place of religion in the metropole. This book has examined competing expectations held over the long nineteenth century for the schooling of non-Europeans in the British Empire by evangelical missionary societies

in Missionaries and modernity