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Joseph Hardwick

of Tasmania, was a Howley protégé), or because their activities in the SPG or Church reform qualified them for continuing the work of Church revival overseas. Robert Gray’s role in setting up SPG parochial associations after 1840 was a factor in his appointment; Edward Feild (appointed to Newfoundland, 1844) came to the notice of Bishop Blomfleld because of the reports he wrote for the National

in An Anglican British World
The Church of England and the Expansion of the Settler Empire, c. 1790–1860

When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.

Kathleen G. Cushing

almost inevitable that the Church would perennially need to undertake reform. 1 That said, there have been times in the past, at least from the perspective of hindsight, when cries for Church reform seem to have been especially pronounced, periods that have come to be identified as effectively ‘ages of reform’ such as the early fourth century, the late sixth century, the Iconoclast period and the sixteenth century, to say nothing of the mid-twentieth century. Yet perhaps none of these periods has so dominated the discourse of reform as that of the eleventh century

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century

turnover of bishops, further weakening supervision. Such concerns led statesmen and churchmen of all parties to demand church reform. The very first proposal in the first report of the Ecclesiastical Commission established in 1835 was for a diocese for Manchester. 3 Respect for life-interests and concern about constitutional repercussions (which initially required that new sees be counterbalanced by mergers), however, meant that it was not until 11 February 1848 that James Prince Lee was enthroned as the

in Manchester Cathedral
Amy C. Mulligan

build a monastery. As mentioned previously, historical details identify the Tractatus ’s anonymous king as Diarmait Mac Murchada, one of twelfth-century Ireland’s most powerful figures. This king of Leinster sponsored significant Irish church reforms and was patron of several religious establishments and structures built in the new Romanesque style. 51 He is perhaps the most well-known Irish figure in contemporary accounts of the English conquest of Ireland, including the early

in A landscape of words
Monastic exemption in France, c. 590– c. 1100

This book examines the history of monastic exemption in France. It maps an institutional story of monastic freedom and protection, which is deeply rooted in the religious, political, social, and legal culture of the early Middle Ages. Traversing many geo-political boundaries and fields of historical specialisation, this book evaluates the nature and extent of papal involvement in French monasteries between the sixth and eleventh centuries. Defining the meaning and value of exemption to medieval contemporaries during this era, it demonstrates how the papacy’s commitment, cooperation, and intervention transformed existing ecclesiastical and political structures. Charting the elaboration of monastic exemption privileges from a marginalised to centralised practice, this book asks why so many French monasteries were seeking exemption privileges directly from Rome; what significance they held for monks, bishops, secular rulers, and popes; how and why this practice developed throughout the early Middle Ages; and, ultimately, what impact monastic exemption had on the emerging identity of papal authority, the growth of early monasticism, Frankish politics and governance, church reform, and canon law.

Ian W. Archer

Chronicles remained the dominant form of historical writing throughout the sixteenth century, and contained much material about the relationship of parliament and the crown and the wider political community. But how coherent a view of parliament could be derived from the chronicles? That is the question addressed by this essay, primarily through Holinshed, but with reference to the other chronicles on which his account was built. Holinshed included some key texts on parliament, including William Harrison’s reworking of Sir Thomas Smith’s account in De republica Anglorum (1583), significantly enhancing parliament’s role on the succession and church reform, and John Hooker’s Order and Usage (1572), inserted into the Irish section. But Holinshed famously left his chronicles open to variant readings. There was little interest in parliament’s institutional development, or commonwealth legislation, but much more interest in parliament as the bringer of hated taxes, and in the politics of parliaments, particularly relating to monarchical succession. It is argued that readers might take away various understandings from the chronicles, but that in any case the chronicles tended to focus less on institutional structures than on the moral qualities of the country’s leaders who operated them.

in Writing the history of parliament in Tudor and early Stuart England
Renewal, 1950–1990
Brian Heffernan

One topic dominated convent life from the 1950s to the 1990s: renewal. It was inspired by a new sense of the importance of fostering mental and physical health, and by a theological recalibration that favoured authenticity and ‘mature faith’, and it was promoted by sections of the clergy, previously the guardians of observance and tradition. Carmelite renewal played out on two levels: the official, worldwide process of revising the constitutions; and local changes within the convent. This chapter looks at the fraught and polarised process of constitutional revision, which resulted in papal approval of two different texts in 1990 and 1991, reflecting conflicting versions of Carmelite renewal, one more traditionalist and the other more reformist. It also analyses the changes that occurred at convent level, showing how protagonists of reform attempted to persuade the sisters of the necessity of change, and how the latter sought to bend reform to suit their own purposes: to find the shape of a contemplative, secluded life of prayer that would be suited to modern times and to the modern ideal of the Christian. The chapter is a study of grassroots appropriation of and resistance to church reform.

in Modern Carmelite nuns and contemplative identities
Open Access (free)
Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition
S.J. Barnett

modern admirers, French Jansenists have usually been regarded as religious fanatics and therefore conservative, while the Church has considered them to be extreme, beyond the Christian pale. Similar arguments against the label extremist can be advanced in the Italian context, when during the 1770s and 1780s the ecclesiastical rights of Catholic sovereigns were championed against what was understood as the tyrannic jurisdiction of Rome, which had overthrown the state–Church traditions of the early Church. This movement for radical Church reform (although ultimately

in The Enlightenment and religion
Kriston R. Rennie

‘liberty’ ( Freiheit ) sought by the reformers was effectively guaranteed by submission to papal protection. 21 The type of protection offered by this pope and his successors was no longer that observed in previous centuries; it had developed beyond a complementary or parallel form of support initially offered by Frankish rulers. The significance of such claims weighs heavily on our interpretation of church reform. Together, these arguments suggest that the culture and objectives of this eleventh-century ‘movement’ offered a suitable climate

in Freedom and protection