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John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors.

By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views.

The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.

Elza Adamowicz

: painting itself’ (1996: 18).1 Picabia has appropriated here images from the neoclassical artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: the female figure recalls the figure in Ingres’s painting La Source (1820; figure 3.2) as well as Roger délivrant Angélique (1818) (Pierre 2001: 137). Picabia’s painting, with its shift from high art to fairground target, can be read as an acerbic parody of the neo-classical revival promoted by the ‘return to order’ which dominated art and politics in post-war France. Rejecting the denial inherent in the State’s promotion of the integral body

in Dada bodies
João R. Figueiredo

Following a well-known trend in early modern Europe, the Portuguese poet Luís de Camões widely refashioned the myth of Lusus, an obscure son of Bacchus mentioned by Pliny, with two main purposes: to explain the etymology of the words ‘Lusitania’ (the former Roman province used as a synonym for Portugal) and ‘Lusíadas’ (the descendants of Lusus and the title of Camões’s epic poem, published in 1572); and to set in motion the narrative framework of Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India, insofar as Bacchus, the mythical ancestor of the Portuguese and former conqueror of India, fiercely opposes the King of Portugal’s expansionist plans. To address such questions, Camões vies with Ovid and Pliny, two fundamental sources for the classical revival in early modern Europe, in creating a larger-than-life metamorphosis: the giant Adamastor, turned into stone at the nethermost tip of Africa, whose autobiography is the etiology of the Cape of Good Hope.

in Local antiquities, local identities
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Sanctity as literature
Eva von Contzen

Bernau (Chapter 8), von Contzen (Chapter 9), James (Chapter 7) and Larsen (Chapter 11) identify as the building blocks of the literary can be linked with the more general cultural processes Julia Reinhard Lupton has termed the ‘passion of secularisation’.23 According to Lupton, hagiography had to be subsumed into new genres in order to secure its permanent place in literary history as the spiritual mother of many modern genres: in parallel to the classical revival in hagiography, saints’ lives and their motifs were secularised and subsequently turned into a typology

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
Joanna Crosby

represented a wished-for Victorian England, and a vision of how it would continue to be under the peaceful rule of its Queen. Arthurian and Classical revivals, and the Gothic revival in architecture, provided a strategy for legitimately increasing the artistic distance between their followers, the life of the imagination and the material changes in the Victorian landscape. Urban and rural readers (and non-readers) were aware of the changes that were taking place across the environment: enclosures and the increasing industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation

in EcoGothic gardens in the long nineteenth century
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Kathleen Christian
Bianca de Divitiis

century, the Dominican friar Giovanni Nanni (Annius) of Viterbo played up the Etruscan origins of his home town with fictive histories and images, staging the discovery of forged inscriptions alluding to Viterbo’s foundation by Janus, and publishing an inventive antiquarian treatise that was influential in many parts of Europe.3 The foundations for an interdisciplinary analysis of local antiquities were laid in the 1950s by Roberto Weiss, in his survey of classical revival in Italy, and by Arnaldo Momigliano, in a famous article that made ‘antiquarianism’ a topic of

in Local antiquities, local identities
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Temporal frontiers and boundaries in colonial images of the Australian landscape
Rod Macneil

a demure, elegant and mythological Aboriginal population. Although many Australian Classical Revival paintings might be fairly considered somewhat whimsical in their subject matter, they nonetheless effectively bring to a close the process of whitening the Australian landscape. Long’s landscape fulfils many colonial fantasies relating to the occupation and possession of land

in Colonial frontiers
An introduction to Gothic fashion
Catherine Spooner

theory stresses the socially constructed nature of all forms of dress. Finally, the chronology does not always match, as the peak of the Gothic novel’s popularity in the 1790s coincided with the emergence of the classical revival in women’s dress, while by the 1840s the Gothic novel had mostly been absorbed into a range of other genres. Wuthering Heights (1847) and Jane Eyre (1847) are arguably more

in Fashioning Gothic bodies
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Haunting, flowers and personal mythologies
Alexandra Parsons

Pictorial was launched in 1951, often including Greek- and Roman-themed softcore porn photos. Jarman's Sebastiane is certainly influenced by the classical revival that took place during his early twenties. In late 1991, Jarman comments ‘In ancient Rome, I could have married a boy; but in the way that ideals seem to become their shadows, love came only to be accepted within marriage’ ( At Your Own Risk , p. 4). Ancient Greece and Rome are suggestive sites to dwell on because they fuse homoeroticism with the birth of Western art and culture. 40

in Luminous presence
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William Blake's Gothic relations
David Baulch

Classics! & not Goths nor Monks, that Desolate Europe with Wars’ ( On Homers ; E 270). As a polemic against classical thought, and especially its neo-classical revival, On Homers Poetry [and] On Virgil finds the stasis and mathematical abstraction of Grecian form inimical to the Gothic as Living Form. At stake in these opposing conceptions of forms are the politics of geopolitical struggle. The path of Grecian form is embodied in the French

in William Blake's Gothic imagination