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The wages of sin
J. J. Anderson

Introduction Cleanness combines discussion of a religious virtue with retelling of stories from the Bible. Its three main stories (at the end of the poem the narrator refers to the thrynne wyses in which he has dealt with his theme) are from the Old Testament. They centre on Noah, Sodom and Gomorrah, and Belshazzar’s feast. All three have a number of episodes. The story of Noah includes God’s anger with the corruption of the world, his command to Noah to build the Ark, the Flood, and God’s covenant with Noah never to destroy the whole world again. The

in Language and imagination in the Gawain-poems
Open Access (free)
A practical politics of care
Caoimhe McAvinchey

Clean Break, founded in 1979 by two women serving sentences in an English prison, has developed over the last four decades into an influential theatre, education and advocacy organisation, positioning narratives of women affected by the criminal justice system centre stage. In this chapter, Joan Tronto’s work on care, markets and justice ([1993] 2009 , 2013 ) informs my reading of Clean Break’s organisational practices as care. From its distinctive approach to developing new writing for theatre, to its enduring commitment to reach audiences through

in Performing care
Race, culture and power in the Trinidad ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition, 1946–59
Rochelle Rowe

2 Cleaning up Carnival: race, culture and power in the Trinidad ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition, 1946–59 There is no reason why Carnival should not gain in attractiveness what it loses in vulgarity. A first step towards better things may be to give it more coherence by establishing a central feature of wide public appeal and this purpose is served . . . by the ‘Carnival Queen’ contest.1 Trinidad Guardian, 1949 T he ‘Miss Trinidad’ beauty competition doubled as the search for an annual ‘Carnival Queen’. It began in Port of Spain in 1946, the first year in

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Barry Jordan

on a video he had seen of the location house, at Torrelavega, near Santander. However, these were initially rejected by Amenábar as too clean, warm and cosy. The director wished to give the house a far more chilly, dusty, gloomy ‘feel’, since the script indicated that it was almost empty, very dirty, overgrown, had already been abandoned and was quickly becoming derelict. Their costume designer Sonia Grande also set to work

in Alejandro Amenábar
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Lord Leverhulme, soap and civilization
Author:

This book is an unorthodox biography of William Hesketh Lever, 1st Lord Leverhulme (1851-1925), the founder of the Lever Brothers' Sunlight Soap empire. The most frequently recurring comparison during his life and at his death, however, was with Napoleon. What the author finds most fascinating about him is that he unites within one person so many intriguing developments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The book first sketches out his life, the rise and triumph of his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. It contains essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising, of factory paternalism, town planning, the Garden City movement and their ramifications across the twentieth century, and of colonial encounters. Lever had worked hard at opening agencies and selling his soap abroad since 1888. But if import drives proved unsatisfactory, logic dictated that soap should be manufactured and sold locally, both to reduce the price by vaulting tariff barriers on imports and to cater for idiosyncratic local tastes. As D. K. Fieldhouse points out, Lever Brothers was one of the first generation of capitalist concerns to manufacture in a number of countries. The company opened or started building factories in America, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Germany in the late 1890s. It then spread to most western European countries and the other white settler colonies of the empire, as well as more tentatively to Asia and Africa.

Rosalie David

Ancient medical and healing systems are currently attracting considerable interest. This issue includes interdisciplinary studies which focus on new perceptions of some ancient and medieval medical systems, exploring how they related to each other, and assessing their contribution to modern society. It is shown that pre-Greek medicine included some rational elements, and that Egyptian and Babylonian medical systems contributed to a tradition which led from classical antiquity through the Middle Ages and beyond. The reliability of sources of evidence is considered, as well as the legacy of the ancient healing environments (temples and healing sanctuaries) and disease treatments (including surgical procedures and pharmaceutical preparations). Finally, where documentation survives, the legacy of social attitudes to health and disease is considered. Overarching principles directed policies of social medicine and healthcare in antiquity and the Middle Ages: for example, the causes and transmission routes of infectious diseases, as well as the basic principles of sterilization, were unknown, but nevertheless attempts were made to improve sanitation, provide clean water, and ensure access to trained physicians. In some cases, the need to limit the size of the population prompted the use of contraceptive measures, and surviving information also illuminates attitudes to deformity, disability and the treatment of the terminally ill.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Digital Skills Training and the Systematic Exclusion of Refugees in Lebanon
Rabih Shibli
and
Sarah Kouzi

crisis ( Khawaja, 2011 ) and their alleged contribution to the Lebanese civil war (1975–90). With no safe place to go back to, Syrian refugees succumb to restrictive Lebanese measures such as the ones limiting their right to work in only three sectors: agriculture, construction and cleaning services. This field report examines the impact and limitations faced by a digital skills training programme that aimed to meet the livelihoods and employment needs of Syrian refugees and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

non-intervention, and came to see that the (post)colonial run-up to genocide was a story of too much intervention, even in the name of democracy. During my doctoral research, I rediscovered the case of Somaliland. A self-declared independent republic in the north-western corner of Somalia, Somaliland had declined US and UN interventions at the beginning of the 1990s, apart from specific assistance (the clean-up of landmines, for example). Instead, it took care of its peace-building process internally and with its diaspora. Over the years, even

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Insight from Northeast Nigeria
Chikezirim C. Nwoke
,
Jennifer Becker
,
Sofiya Popovych
,
Mathew Gabriel
, and
Logan Cochrane

perspectives on the challenges and successes of the nutrition support groups that are being organised by Save the Children. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated to English. To ensure data protection, all data (tools, audio files, transcripts, analysis) were stored on password-protected computers. After the data was compiled and cleaned up by the Nigeria research team, the Carleton research team (comprising of the lead researcher and a graduate research assistant) began the analysis. In the writing of this paper, pseudonyms were used for all

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

-borne diseases through the control of rats, cockroaches and mosquitoes. The inclusion of a simple chimney will remove the smoke from a kitchen. If the new house has a corrugated iron roof, then guttering and a tank can provide a supply of clean water. A toilet or a latrine can dramatically decrease the incidence of diarrhoea and water-borne disease. More mundanely, a new house can be an opportunity to increase size, comfort and privacy. This is particularly relevant for women and children who spend a considerable amount of time at home. For women, as well as men, it can also

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs