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Daisy Connon

Towards a Theory for African Cinema is an English translation of a talk given in French by the Tunisian filmmaker and critic Férid Boughedir (1944–) at a conference on international cinema, which took place in Montreal in 1974. In his presentation Boughedir discusses the vocation of the African filmmaker, who must avoid succumbing to the escapism and entertainment values of Western cinema and instead strive to reflect the contradictions and tensions of the colonised African identity, while promoting a revitalisation of African culture. Drawing on the example of the 1968 film Mandabi (The Money Order) by the Senegalese director Sembène Ousmane, Boughedir conceptualises a form of cinema which resists the influences of both Hollywood and auteur film and awakens viewers, instead of putting them to sleep. Boughedir‘s source text is preceded by a translator‘s introduction, which situates his talk within contemporary film studies.

Film Studies
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Belgian popular imperialism, 1830–1960
Matthew G. Stanard

others connected to the nascent colonial lobby. 30 They recognised the ability of motion pictures to move people, just as others in Europe did, and it was these imperialist enthusiasts who drove this first foray into colonial film propaganda, not Leopold. Optique Belge created a pavilion in 1897 called the Zoographe to show films to visitors, but because of technical and other difficulties it showed

in European empires and the people
African–German encounters
Eva Bischoff

culture, notwithstanding a few studies of Frieda von Bülow and Tobias Nagl's reconstruction of the white woman as an icon in colonial films. 11 A homemaker's duty and a mother's pity: Gehrts on trek Emma Gehrts (1891–1966) arrived in Lomé, the capital of German colonial Togo, in autumn 1913. She accompanied Hans Hermann Schomburgk (1880–1967) on his journey to the colony after a considerable debate with her upper-middle-class parents who had

in Savage worlds
Abstract only
Gemma King

‘colonialism produces a multilingualism structured in relations of domination and subjugation’ (2012: 24) and colonial-era film usually perpetuates such relations. Contemporary cinema departs in almost all ways from such linguistic representation. Yet while the portrayal of the interaction between French and (post) colonial languages like Arabic in contemporary multilingual films differs vastly from that of colonial films and even later neo-colonial films like Indochine (Régis Wargnier 1992), it would be naive to consider contemporary language relations as existing in an

in Decentring France
Cultures and geographies of imperialism in Germany, 1848–1918
Bernhard Gissibl

League and school parties followed by evening screenings for adults, were used to enhance the popular appeal of the early colonial films. Wolfgang Fuhrmann has been able to confirm forty-five screenings in German cities, including metropoles such as Berlin and Frankfurt as well as provincial cities such as Calbe or Sigmaringen. In some cities, the screenings were an undeniable success – 8,000 school

in European empires and the people
Joe Turner

2 Making love, making empire On 19 April 1899 a troupe of South African ‘tribal’ groups landed at Southampton docks on the South Coast of England. Later that month they were due to perform a central role in the Earl’s Court exhibition Savage South Africa. Local reports claimed that ‘among the effects were over 200 natives of South African tribes, a number of Boer families, representatives of the mounted police, and a number of animals’ (Shephard 1986: 97). Early film footage, archived by the Colonial Film Project, shows the apparent moment when the groups

in Bordering intimacy
Greater Britain in the Second World War and beyond
Wendy Webster

exploited in a documentary made by the Colonial Film Unit, sponsored by the Ministry of Information and intended for an African audience. Africa’s Fighting Men (1943) ended with shots of Thomas shaking hands with a white officer. 48 A range of other wartime documentaries and newsreels celebrated the contribution of men of colour to the imperial war effort. The public celebration of a ‘people

in The break-up of Greater Britain
Noni Jabavu, an unconventional South African in London
Andrea Thorpe

[her] feet’ (Jabavu 1962c : 323), since Cadbury Crosfield first founded the Uganda Colonial Film Unit, which meant the couple lived in Uganda from 1955 to 1960, and later worked as a films adviser to the Jamaican government, necessitating a sojourn in Kingston from 1962 to 1967. Like Abrahams and his wife, their ‘mixed’ marriage contravened apartheid laws and thus prevented frequent visits to Jabavu's home country. Later in life, even after the marriage failed, Jabavu was to live in Kenya and Zimbabwe, with sporadic visits to South Africa, eventually returning in

in South African London