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Ronald Hyam

Crewe’s Circular on concubinage (1909), Enclosure ‘A’] In 1909 a sexual directive was issued to members of the Colonial Service which for the first time laid down a general rule to discourage concubinage, warning of the severe penalties that could be expected. 1 This change of official attitude was one of the few tangible elements

in Empire and sexuality
Open Access (free)
The Colonial Medical Service in British Africa

A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.

Christopher Prior

some of the persons and places in the Southern Provinces. 51 This was reciprocated in kind. Neil Weir had identified with southern Nigeria from the very start of his time in the colonial service in 1925. He thoroughly enjoyed the work. 52 In 1928, Weir went on local leave to Zaria, where he ‘had the opportunity to see the running of a big

in Exporting empire
Army wives and domesticating the ‘native’
Neil Macmaster

carried into the French colonies, most notably during the war in Indochina, where both Massu and Salan had served as military nurses. The French forces in Vietnam developed a programme of welfare work with indigenous women, and after 1954 this experience was brought into Algeria. It was French policy in Africa, Indochina and elsewhere to encourage wives of the military and colonial service to volunteer for welfare work with native women since they had unique access and, surrounded by servants, had the free time to do so.9 In Lebanon and Syria during the French mandate

in Burning the veil
Charlotte Wheeler- Cuffe’s exploration of the frontier districts, 1903
Nuala C Johnson

were equally divided between scientists/teachers and professional women. Wheeler-Cuffe received this honour in recognition of her contributions to botanical art and natural history; her collection and dissemination of plant species between Burma and home; and the geographical knowledge she had accumulated about Burma from the quarter of a century (1897–1921) she spent there with her husband as part of the colonial service. Such recognition echoes Maddrell’s observation that ‘Those who travelled with husbands or family on imperial duty … represent a continuation of

in Empire and mobility in the long nineteenth century
Jane Brooks

The chapter considers the civilian world into which the Q.A.s returned at the end of the war and explores the options they faced. It begins with the immediate aftermath of war and the opportunities for interesting and worthwhile work that would only exacerbate the nursing sisters’ difficulties on demobilisation. This is followed by a consideration of the return to Britain and the options open for professional practice. The chapter argues that for some the option of interesting work remained, either in the colonial service or the military. However the main professional opening for returning nurses was the crisis ridden civilian hospital system that wanted and recruited cheap, malleable workers; this was not an attractive choice for demobbed nursing sisters. The chapter argues that despite nursing being a female dominated profession, the ideology that encouraged women to return to the home in the aftermath of war had significant ramifications for demobilised nurses. The social structure precluded married women from working outside the home and funds for postgraduate training available to returning male doctors were not offered to nurses. As the chapter maintains, most nursing sisters married, leaving the profession without their considerable talents and new ways of practicing.

in Negotiating nursing
Wm. Matthew Kennedy

This chapter takes up the question of how Australian settler colonists governed their own colonial empire in the Pacific and Australia’s Northern Territory. Australia’s vision of empire was to transform from ideal to practice, from the point of view not only of Melbourne bureaucrats who oversaw the colonial governments of each territory, but also if the ‘experts’ tasked with carrying out ‘Australian ideas’ of colonial governance themselves. Using the records of Australian Papua and the Northern Territory along with the private papers of some notable officials, the discussion contextualizes them with records from both public discourses of imperial governance in Australia (taken from newspapers, periodicals, journals, and books) and the growing literature about the ‘science’ of colonial administration emerging to support the training of an Australian colonial service. It ultimately reveals the inherently transcolonial nature of ‘scientific governance’ as well – a theory of colonial government articulated first by Australian officials in Papua that, later, would find application in the Northern Territory and eventually across other British and broader European colonial worlds.

in The imperial Commonwealth
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state
Anna Greenwood

sustain. As well as deconstructing the idea of a unified and unidirectional Colonial Service, grouping these eight essays together in one collection also answers recent demands for more comparative studies in the history of medicine, as opposed to the ‘single-site’ case studies that have hitherto dominated the discipline. Although concentrating only upon British territories in

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Abstract only
Christopher Prior

with how officials were recruited, and contains very little on their actions once out in Africa. 3 Older works could not benefit from the sources now open to scholars, particularly officials’ private papers in the University of Oxford’s Colonial Records Project, archived at Rhodes House. More recent work on colonial service has nevertheless focused on statistics and the

in Exporting empire