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Patrick O’Leary

lying four to a bed and had seen the town’s stinking burial pit, 26 and said in relation to India, ‘Perhaps the widespread misery which I had witnessed in Ireland, produced by similar conditions, had quickened my observation.’ 27 This attitude was consistent with his desire to move cultivators from overcrowded eastern parts of Punjab to the newly opened colonies. His Irish

in Servants of the empire
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European monarchies and overseas empires

Crowns and Colonies is a set of sixteen original essays by distinguished international scholars that explore the relationship between European monarchies and overseas empires. The essays argue that during much of the history of colonialism there existed a direct and important link between most colonial empires and the institutions of monarchy. The contributions, which encompass the British, French, Dutch, Italian and German empires, examine the constitutional role of the monarchs in overseas territories brought under their flag, royal prerogatives exercised in the empires, individual connections between monarchs and their colonial domains, such aspects of monarchical rule as royal tours and regalia, and the place of indigenous hereditary rulers in the colonial system. Several chapters also focus on the evolution of the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth and former British colonies.

John Field

3 Labour colonies and public health As well as the unemployed, labour colonies were also directed towards those who could not work for other reasons. Large numbers of people with physical or mental disabilities or impairments found themselves in workhouses, often classed together – idiots, the feeble-minded, cripples, inebriates, or simply old1 – as incapable of earning a living in the open labour market. Increasingly, though, the workhouse was viewed as entirely inappropriate for these groups, whose vulnerability was seen as a legitimate basis for intervention

in Working men’s bodies
The work of law and medicine in the creation of the colonial asylum
Catharine Coleborne

argues that historians of the asylum, who have so often spoken from imperial centres, might fruitfully investigate the imperial reaches and effects of medical and legal practices and understandings of the nineteenth century by looking comparatively at settler colonies, and also at local asylum populations constructed on the colonial ‘frontier’. In the past decade or more, far from

in Law, history, colonialism
Real and imagined boundaries between metropole and empire in 1920s Marseilles
Yaël Simpson Fletcher

representations of Asia, Africa or the Americas for display to Europeans and Americans. 4 Herman Lebovics, for example, has portrayed the 1931 International Colonial Exposition in Paris as a symbolic space placing the empire firmly within the boundaries of French culture. 5 Another approach has focused on the imagery and experience of travel between the cultural spaces of the metropole and the colonies. The literary scholars Mary Louise Pratt, Ali Behdad and others have considered European travellers in colonial Africa and Asia

in Imperial cities
Linley Sambourne, Punch, and imperial allegory
Robert Dingley and Richard Scully

resort to an ad hoc imagery that was often only provisional and sometimes confusing. Indeed, the capacity of traditional iconographic systems to dramatise international politics in a way that remains transparently legible can rapidly become swamped by the proliferation of states and situations requiring representation, so that the unlimited invention of new allegorical figures threatens to tip the whole symbolic enterprise towards incoherence. The increasingly frenetic ‘scramble for colonies’, for example, necessitated the often arbitrary creation of a whole cast of

in Comic empires
François-Joseph Ruggiu

In 1765, the instructions given by the Secrétaire d’État de la Marine to the Comte d’Ennery and Président de Peynier, respectively governor and intendant of the island of Martinique, asserted: ‘One would be strangely misled in considering our colonies as provinces of France simply separated by the sea from the homeland.’ And the instructions continued: ‘They differ

in Crowns and colonies
Lenin and Langston Hughes
Matthieu Renault

markets extremely porous and shifting. That is why the borderlands excluded at the outset of his analysis inevitably make a return, for instance when he focuses on the commercial cultivation of grain – the heart of whose production had moved from the ‘central zone of Black Earth’ to the ‘Lower Volga steppe provinces’. The shift was the result of vast migrations towards southern Russia: ‘in the post-Reform period the outer steppe regions have been colonies of the central, long-settled part of European Russia. The

in The Red and the Black
Gothic Homonyms and Sympathetic Distinctions
Julia Wright

This essay situates Lewis‘s ‘Anaconda’ (1808) in relation to an early imperial Gothic tradition which represents colonial spaces as threats to English character. Lewis draws on orientalist discourse to describe the orient not only as a source of wealth but also as the site of a potentially fatal trauma for English subjects; Ireland is similarly represented but key differences suggest a lesser threat to the English psyche (and so the imperial project). Sensibility, as the foundation of civility that bears with it the risk of emotional susceptibility, emerges in ‘Anaconda’ as a register of national superiority, imperial vulnerability, and differences between colonies.

Gothic Studies
Martyn Powell

This essay focuses upon the controversy surrounding Lord George Townshends appointment as Irish viceroy in 1767. He was the first viceroy to be made constantly resident and therefore it was a shift that could be seen as part of a process of imperial centralization, akin to assertive British policy-making for the American colonies and India. Up until this point there has been some doubt as to whether Townshend himself or the British Government was the prime mover behind this key decision. This article uses the Caldwell-Shelburne correspondence in the John Rylands Library,to shed further light on this policy-making process, as well as commenting on the importance of Sir James Caldwell, landowner, hack writer and place-hunter extraordinaire, and the Earl of Shelburne, Irish-born Secretary of State and later Prime Minister, and reflecting on the historiography,of the Townshend administration and Anglo-Irish relations more generally.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library