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The policy debate in Henrician Ireland, c.1515–1546
David Heffernan

26 •  debating tudor policy in sixteenth-century ireland  • 1 • Conquest or conciliation? The policy debate in Henrician Ireland, c.1515–15461 As with so much else in the Tudor dominions the reign of Henry VIII was of critical importance in defining how government policy was shaped in Ireland during the sixteenth century. Historians of the period, long aware of this fact, have closely examined a number of treatises written on Ireland at the time with a view to determining how the Tudor conquest of Ireland or indeed efforts to constitutionally ‘reform’ the

in Debating Tudor policy in sixteenth-century Ireland
The source and power of Islam
Robin Derricourt

Chapter 3 Vision, faith and conquest: the source and power of Islam In the middle decades of the 7th century ce, armies from the Arabian Peninsula achieved the rapid conquest of territories extending from Afghanistan to North Africa, seized from the weakened Sasanian and Byzantine Empires. They created new settlements and fortifications, and taxes were now payable to the new rulers. However, for much of the first century of the conquest it did not transform the material culture, economic or social pattern of most of the peoples of the Levant. The unifying

in Creating God
Abstract only
Philip M. Taylor

Chapter 5 The Norman Conquest For the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, at least, we do have a considerable record of the role of propaganda in medieval warfare, left to us by William of Poitiers. William the Conqueror portrayed his invasion as a holy war under a papal banner. Having informed the Pope of his intentions, Poitiers described how he had ‘received of his benevolence a standard as a sign of the approval of St Peter, behind which he might advance more confidently and securely against his enemy’ (my italics). In fact William, Duke of Normandy, had

in Munitions of the Mind
Vicky Randall

As noted in the Introduction, the Norman Conquest was Freeman’s magnum-opus – a work which absorbed his interest for over thirty years, and on which his contemporary and posthumous reputation has rested. While scholarly interest in the Norman Conquest is intensifying, the tendency is still to dissect, rather than to thoroughly examine, these volumes. What is needed is a more holistic approach. As Bratchel observed, fifty years ago, ‘Freeman’s five volume History … might almost be regarded as being as instructive for the student of the nineteenth as for

in History, empire, and Islam
Allison Drew

its properties. The transfer of land to French colons or settlers soon followed, as the French state extended its reach across the Mediterranean. Over the next four decades the French army marched across the Algerian landscape. Governor-General Thomas-Robert Bugeaud, who led the conquest, was utterly frank about his aims: ‘There is only one interest one can seize in Africa, the interest vested in agriculture

in We are no longer in France
Nest of Deheubarth
Author: Susan M. Johns

The book is an account of noblewomen in Wales in the high middle ages, focusing on one particular case-study, Nest of Deheubarth. Object of one of the most notorious and portentous abductions of the middle ages, this ‘Helen of Wales’ was both mistress of Henry I and ancestress of a dynasty which dominated the Anglo-Norman conquests of Ireland. The book fills a significant gap in the historiography - while women’s power has been one of the most vibrant areas of historical scholarship for thirty years, Welsh medieval studies has not yet responded. It develops understandings of the interactions of gender with conquest, imperialism, and with the social and cultural transformations of the middle ages, from a new perspective. Many studies have recently appeared reconsidering these relationships, but few if any have women and gender as a core theme. Gender, Nation and Conquest will therefore be of interest to all researching, teaching and studying the high middle ages in Britain and Ireland, and to a wider audience for which medieval women’s history women is a growing fascination. Hitherto Nest has been seen as the pawn of powerful men. A more general discussion of ideals concerning beauty, love, sex and marriage and an analysis of the interconnecting identities of Nest throws light on her role as wife/concubine/mistress. A unique feature of the book is its examination of the story of Nest in its many forms over succeeding centuries, during which it has formed part of significant narratives of gender and nation.

Dylan Foster Evans

12 Conquest, roads and resistance in medieval Wales Dylan Foster Evans In his General View of the Agriculture and Domestic Economy of South Wales of 1815, the Reverend Walter Davies (‘Gwallter Mechain’) relates a tale concerning Valentine Morris (1727–89) of Piercefield near Chepstow. The Monmouthshire gentleman was giving evidence at the House of Commons and was asked what roads were to be had in the county. ‘None’ was his answer. ‘How do you travel then?’ he was asked. ‘In ditches,’ came the reply.1 This anecdote is one of many that may be adduced as evidence

in Roadworks
The changing scale of warfare and the making of early colonial South Asia
Manu Sehgal

Scale of warfare in early colonial South Asia 4 Towards a political economy of conquest: the changing scale of warfare and the making of early colonial South Asia Manu Sehgal Continuity and change in colonial war- and state-making War-making and state-making have been understood to be closely interrelated and have been studied as such for the early modern period. The ‘bellicist’ origins of the modern nation state have continued to attract cross-disciplinary attention following Charles Tilly’s influential formulation ‘war made the state and the state made war’.1

in A global history of early modern violence
Susan M. Johns

During the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, Norman expansionism had led to a fundamental reconfiguration of political control in south-west Wales. This in turn caused ongoing social, economic and cultural changes in the wake of a process of piecemeal conquest. The Norman incursions into Wales followed the Norman conquest of England in 1066, although the Normans had not initially turned their attention to the Welsh kingdoms after the conquest of England. While William Rufus was king of England, the intervention in Wales of Anglo

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages
Amy C. Mulligan

A remarkable depiction of Ireland ( Figure 1 ) is found in a manuscript (Dublin, National Library of Ireland MS 700, henceforth N.L.I. 700) from ca. 1200 sandwiched between the Topographia Hibernica (‘Topography of Ireland’) and Expugnatio Hibernica (‘Conquest of Ireland’). 1 The map was likely made or commissioned by the author of these texts, Gerald of Wales (ca. 1146–1223), 2 a prominent Welsh-born cleric and later bishop whose family members, the Geraldines, were

in A landscape of words