Constructivism differs from some of the other theories explored in this volume because it is not a substantive theory of International Relations (IR), per se . Unlike realism, for example, it does not rest on explicit claims about which actors matter most in international politics, nor does it advance specific predictions about how those actors will behave (Finnemore and Sikkink 2001 : 393). Instead, constructivism is a social theory, an approach to studying international relations that takes seriously the ‘dynamic, contingent, and
Machine art and architecture at The Little Review exhibitions
Constructivism in the USA:
machine art and architecture at
The Little Review exhibitions
For Americans, the picture of Russian art in the first decade and a half following
the Revolution was chequered, and attempts to disseminate Soviet artworks in
books, articles, and exhibitions were sporadic and uneven. Too often a prerevolutionary rationale determined the discourse on post-revolutionary work
by situating the works within the amorphous and increasingly institutionalized
figure of modern art. Therefore the treatment of Constructivism, the most
Watching the red dawn charts the responses of the American avant-garde to the cultural works of its Soviet counterpart in period from the formation of the USSR in 1922 to recognition of this new communist nation by USA in 1933. In this period American artists, writers, and designers looked at the emerging Soviet Union with fascination, as they observed this epochal experiment in communism develop out of the chaos of the Russian Revolution and Civil War. They organised exhibitions of Soviet art and culture, reported on visits to Russia in books and articles, and produced works that were inspired by post-revolutionary culture. One of the most important innovations of Soviet culture was to collapse boundaries between disciplines, as part of a general aim to bring art into everyday life. Correspondingly, this book takes an interdisciplinary approach by looking at American avant-garde responses to Soviet culture across several media, including architecture, theatre, film, photography, and literature. As such, Watching the red dawn considers the putative area of ‘American Constructivism’ by examining the interconnected ways in which Constructivist works were influential upon American practices.
UN peacekeeping is a core pillar of the multilateral peace and security architecture and a multi-billion-dollar undertaking reshaping lives around the world. In spite of this, the engagement between the literatures on UN peacekeeping and International Relations theory has been a slow development. This has changed in recent years, and there is now a growing interest tin examining UN peacekeeping from various theoretical perspectives to yield insights about how international relations are changing and developing. The volume is the first comprehensive overview of multiple theoretical perspectives on UN peacekeeping. There are two main uses of this volume. First, this volume provides the reader with insights into different theoretical lenses and how they can be applied practically to understanding UN peacekeeping better. Second, through case studies in each chapter, the volume provides practical examples of how International Relations theories – such as realism, liberal institutionalism, rational choice institutionalism, sociological institutionalism, feminist institutionalism, constructivism, critical security studies, practice theory, and complexity theory – can be applied to a specific policy issue. Applying these theories enhances our understanding of why UN peacekeeping, as an international institution, has evolved in a particular direction and functions the way that it does. The insights generated in the volume can also help shed light on other international institutions as well as the broader issue of international co-operation.
results as a consequence of being able to ask for something, or being able to stand up
and reach it’ ( Negroponte, 2006 : 1-53)
– that is, through endless feedback loops of iterative environmental interaction
involving an automatic and continuous process of reaching out, discovery and recalibration. Such
constructivist assumptions regarding human learning have long operated as place-holders for the
arrival of machine-thinking. 12 Running parallel with early computer programming, by the 1980s constructivism was also
appearing in the form of
Neutrality as a concept and practice has long been conceptualised in IR theory as problematic. Broadly seen as the tool of small and weak states with dubious moral credentials, a limited understanding of neutrality has persisted from the Peloponnesian War to the ‘war on terror’. Furthermore, as globalisation and non-traditional security problems animate international politics, neutrality is seen as a policy of the past. This book argues that neutrality has been a neglected and misunderstood subject, limited to realist understandings of war and viable statecraft, and in doing so aims to uncover the normative strands of neutrality that mesh with identity, security and alternatives to the anarchic international order. Using Sweden as a case study, it explores the domestic roots of neutrality via a constructivist analysis, examining how neutrality is embedded in ideas of self, and part of a wider Social Democratic vision of active internationalism. Identity, however, is malleable and subject to change, and this analysis also considers the impact of globalisation and European integration, the end of bipolarity, and new security threats such as global terrorism on neutrality as an idea and a practice.
Constructing cybersecurity adopts a constructivist approach to cybersecurity and problematises the state of contemporary knowledge within this field. Setting out by providing a concise overview of such knowledge, this book subsequently adopts Foucauldian positions on power and security to highlight assumptions and limitations found therein. What follows is a detailed analysis of the discourse produced by various internet security companies, demonstrating the important role that these security professionals play constituting and entrenching this knowledge by virtue of their specific epistemic authority. As a relatively new source within a broader security dispositif, these security professionals have created relationships of mutual recognition and benefit with traditional political and security professionals. The book argues that one important product of these relationships is the continued centrality of the state within issues of cybersecurity and the extension of a strategy of neoliberal governance.
There has been a lot of talk about the European Union's so-called 'democratic deficit', by which is meant its lack of legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens. This book provides a critical analysis of the democratic stalemate in European politics. It argues that the root of the 'democratic deficit' has more to do with the domestic political fields of the Union's member-states and the structure of the evolving European political field than with the relationships between supranational institutions. The book analyses the complex ways 'Europe' is integrated into domestic politics and shows how domestic political fields and cultures have prevented deepening integration. As a result of the formation of a European political field, political resources in European 'postnational' and 'postabsolutist' polities are being redistributed. The theory of structural constructivism proposed fuses French structural theories of politics and a 'bottom-up' approach to European integration. The book examines the relationship between French political traditions and the construction of a European security structure from the point of view of identity politics and the French post-imperialist syndrome. The educational and social homogeneity of French civil servants provides a political resource that certain individuals can use in Brussels, influencing the direction and form of European integration. Studying legislative legitimacy in the European Parliament elections, the book highlights that intellectuals are important players in French politics: the politics of the street has always been a key part of French political life.
2 A structural constructivist theory of politics
and of European integration
In this chapter, I explore in detail structural constructivism as a theory of
European integration. By structural constructivism I refer to a mostly French
research tradition that develops some of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical tools
(Bourdieu 1989, 14-25; Ansart 1990; Katshanov and Shmatko 1996, 90-104;
Kauppi 1996, 53-68, 2000). Bourdieu's structural constructivist theory of politics
offers powerful instruments for a critical analysis of political power. In European
studies, the theory
The New Playwrights Theatre and American radical Constructivism
The mass and the machine:
The New Playwrights Theatre
and American radical Constructivism
A New Masses Theatre
For all that the American avant-garde followed cultural developments in the
Soviet Union, there was little attempt to reproduce Constructivism in the
visual arts as a politically revolutionary cultural strategy. However, a putative
‘American Constructivism’ did emerge in the theatre in the late 1920s, and
it marked the clear and conscious reception and adaptation of Russian postrevolutionary theatrical innovations by directors, playwrights, set