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From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

This book deals with the evolution, current status and potential of U.S.–India strategic cooperation. From very modest beginnings, the U.S.–India strategic partnership has developed significantly over the decade 2010–20. In considerable part this growth has stemmed from overlapping concerns about the rise and assertiveness of the People’s Republic of China as well as the instability of Pakistan. Despite the emergence of this partnership, however, significant differences remain. Some of them stem from Cold War legacies, others from divergent global strategic interests and from differences in institutional design. Despite these areas of discord, the overall trajectory of the relationship appears promising. Increased cooperation in several sectors of the relationship and closer policy coordination underscore a deepening of the relationship, while fundamental differences in national approaches to strategic challenges demand flexibility and compromise in the future.

An alternative for the twenty-first century?

After decades of flying beneath the radar, co-operation as a principle of business and socio-economic organisation is moving from the margins of economic, social and political thought into the mainstream. In both the developed and developing worlds, co-operative models are increasingly viewed as central to tackling a diverse array of issues, including global food security, climate change, sustainable economic development, public service provision, and gender inequality. This collection, drawing together research from an interdisciplinary group of scholars and co-operative practitioners, considers the different spheres in which co-operatives are becoming more prominent. Drawing examples from different national and international contexts, the book offers major insights into how co-operation will come to occupy a more central role in social and economic life in the twenty-first century.

From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

EUD1 10/28/03 2:38 PM Page 1 1 EU development cooperation: from model to symbol? Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organisation. It entertains formalised relations with almost all other (groups of ) states. Although much of its attention is devoted to internal integration, obviously the European Union cannot and does not wish to be an isolated entity. Instead it has expressed the desire and ambition to take up a prominent place in the working of

in EU development cooperation
What contribution to regional security?
Panagiota Manoli

2504Chap11 7/4/03 12:41 pm Page 208 11 The Black Sea Economic Cooperation: what contribution to regional security?1 Panagiota Manoli The Black Sea region has been extensively referred to as a bridge, indicating its link with Europe to the West and Asia to the East. As a crossroad of geography, cultures and religions, the Black Sea region presents opportunities for both cooperation and conflict among the region’s states. Developments in this area cannot be viewed in isolation, but always in the context of events taking place in Europe and in Central Asia

in Limiting institutions?
An Indian view
Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan

Introduction U.S.–India relations have transformed in many ways in the two decades since 2000. This is largely being driven by their mutual concern about China’s rise and the manner in which this impacts on the interests of both countries. It is also driving U.S.–India space cooperation. Indeed, cooperation in outer space has the potential to emerge as the new area that could significantly enhance strategic engagement between India and the U.S. 1 Both New Delhi and Washington need each other in an era of

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
A bumpy road
Manoj Joshi

as undertake bilateral and multilateral cooperation through which they can deal with terrorism. India and the U.S. may be geographically distant, but both have experienced terrorism and have come to a common understanding that cooperation in counterterrorism (CT) is in their mutual interest and in the interests of the international community. As the chapter will show, the two countries have been cooperating on CT since the 1980s. However, differing perspectives, structural constraints and varying priorities have

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Unsteady foundations?
Author: David Brown

This book examines the underlying foundations on which the European Union's counter-terrorism and police co-operation policies have been built since the inception of the Treaty on European Union, questioning both the effectiveness and legitimacy of the EU's efforts in these two security areas. Given the importance of such developments to the wider credibility of the EU as a security actor, it adopts a more structured analysis of key stages of the implementation process. These include the establishment of objectives, both at the wider level of internal security co-operation and in terms of both counter-terrorism and policing, particularly in relation to the European Police Office, the nature of information exchange and the ‘value added’ by legislative and operational developments at the European level. The book also offers a more accurate appraisal of the official characterisation of the terrorist threat within the EU as a ‘matter of common concern’. In doing so, not only does it raise important questions about the utility of the European level for organising internal security co-operation, but it also provides a more comprehensive assessment of the EU's activities throughout the lifetime of the Third Pillar, placing in a wide and realistic context the EU's reaction to the events of 11 September 2001 and the greater prominence of Islamist terrorism.

Derek Birrell

9 Cross-border cooperation and British–Irish institutions The introduction of direct rule facilitated a much more positive view of the political and practical value of cooperation between the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland and cross-border cooperation in Ireland. Historically, there had been elements of cross-border cooperation, particularly following the historic meetings in 1965 between the Taoiseach, Sean Lemass and the new Northern Ireland Prime Minister Terence O’Neill. The agenda for cooperation at that time had been largely confined to areas of

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

the alliance. The prime example is the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG), which arose from the need to manage the strategic consequences of NATO’s then-existing cooperation on nuclear weapons, and was a key element leading to a more inclusive and political alliance than it had been previously. This book has shown that non-nuclear allies of the US exert an important degree of influence on nuclear issues

in Partners in deterrence