From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

An alternative for the twenty-first century?

After decades of flying beneath the radar, co-operation as a principle of business and socio-economic organisation is moving from the margins of economic, social and political thought into the mainstream. In both the developed and developing worlds, co-operative models are increasingly viewed as central to tackling a diverse array of issues, including global food security, climate change, sustainable economic development, public service provision, and gender inequality. This collection, drawing together research from an interdisciplinary group of scholars and co-operative practitioners, considers the different spheres in which co-operatives are becoming more prominent. Drawing examples from different national and international contexts, the book offers major insights into how co-operation will come to occupy a more central role in social and economic life in the twenty-first century.

From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

EUD1 10/28/03 2:38 PM Page 1 1 EU development cooperation: from model to symbol? Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organisation. It entertains formalised relations with almost all other (groups of ) states. Although much of its attention is devoted to internal integration, obviously the European Union cannot and does not wish to be an isolated entity. Instead it has expressed the desire and ambition to take up a prominent place in the working of

in EU development cooperation
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

EUD6 10/28/03 3:14 PM Page 101 6 Changing interests in EU development cooperation: the impact of EU membership and advancing integration Karin Arts This chapter examines two main lines of developments within the European Union that have affected the geographical scope of, political priority for, and substantive orientation of, its development cooperation policy. They are, respectively, the changes in EU membership over time and the ever advancing European integration process. These two processes functioned both as incentives and as restraining factors for

in EU development cooperation
Unsteady foundations?
Author: David Brown

This book examines the underlying foundations on which the European Union's counter-terrorism and police co-operation policies have been built since the inception of the Treaty on European Union, questioning both the effectiveness and legitimacy of the EU's efforts in these two security areas. Given the importance of such developments to the wider credibility of the EU as a security actor, it adopts a more structured analysis of key stages of the implementation process. These include the establishment of objectives, both at the wider level of internal security co-operation and in terms of both counter-terrorism and policing, particularly in relation to the European Police Office, the nature of information exchange and the ‘value added’ by legislative and operational developments at the European level. The book also offers a more accurate appraisal of the official characterisation of the terrorist threat within the EU as a ‘matter of common concern’. In doing so, not only does it raise important questions about the utility of the European level for organising internal security co-operation, but it also provides a more comprehensive assessment of the EU's activities throughout the lifetime of the Third Pillar, placing in a wide and realistic context the EU's reaction to the events of 11 September 2001 and the greater prominence of Islamist terrorism.

Keith Vernon

5 History, citizenship and co-operative ­education, c. 1895–1930 Keith Vernon A strong sense of the past pervades the co-operative movement. With the origins of the modern movement traced back to 1844, discussions of the nature and principles of co-operation routinely return to their foundations in the grim industrial conditions of the hungry forties.1 Aspects of this historical culture have been analysed, primarily, through selected writings on the history of co-operation, such as those by G. J. Holyoake (see Yeo, chapter 4, this volume). The crop of jubilee

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Crises and co-operative credibility – some international and historical examples
Anthony Webster, Linda Shaw, Rachael Vorberg-Rugh, John F. Wilson and Ian Snaith

September 2014, a specially convened Special General Meeting (SGM) voted for major changes in the governance of the organisation. The vote ensured that in future the board would be dominated by qualified business professionals, with a much diminished role for elected members. This represented a major compromise of the long tradition of lay leadership within consumer co-operation. By October 2014 the Group had put interim arrangements in place, with the new governance set to begin full operation in May 2015 (see Box 16.1).7 Meanwhile, the devastating financial impact of

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Cliff Mills and Ruth Yeoman

secondary societies were an established part of the economy and played a significant part in shaping British society. By the end of the twentieth century, however, co-operation and mutuality seemed to have become irrelevant. Much of the building society movement had demutualised, and co-operative retailing was in rapid decline. Friendly societies and other mutual initiatives to support citizens in times of hardship were marginalised by the creation of a welfare state and National Health Service (NHS). Self-help rooted in mutual and community-based relationships simply did

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Open Access (free)
The potential and limits of EU development cooperation policy
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

EUD9 10/28/03 3:16 PM Page 149 9 Conclusions: the potential and limits of EU development cooperation policy Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson On 23 June 2000 the Cotonou Agreement was signed, replacing the twentyfive-year-old Lomé Convention. There was a distinct feeling of change in Cotonou and the new Agreement is seen as radically overhauling its predecessors and setting a new basis for partnership between the ACP and EU states. It is too early to provide in-depth analysis of the Cotonou Agreement, not least because in many ways Cotonou provides a kind of

in EU development cooperation
An assessment of EU development aid policies
William Brown

EUD2 10/28/03 2:39 PM Page 17 2 From uniqueness to uniformity? An assessment of EU development aid policies William Brown Introduction European Union development cooperation stretches back as far as the EU itself but for many years its most visible and important component was the relationship with the ACP states institutionalised in the Lomé Convention. Right from its inception, the Lomé Convention was claimed to be unique, either because of the formal terms of the agreement, the context in which it was first negotiated or – the focus of this chapter

in EU development cooperation