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A. J. Coates

14 Counterterrorism Countering terrorism effectively and at the same time ethically presents a formidable challenge. In the pursuit of an effective strategy counterterrorist forces are often led to adopt morally questionable means. The realist might argue that this is further evidence of the fundamental incompatibility of war and morality; terrorism cannot be defeated without betraying (albeit temporarily and in extremis) the values that the counterterrorist is fighting to uphold. And yet a case can be made (partly on realist grounds) that the most effective way

in The ethics of war
Strategies for global change

This book analyses the evolving Anglo-American counter-terror propaganda strategies that spanned the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as reconstruction, between 2001 and 2008. It offers insights into the transformation beyond this period, tracking many key developments as much as possible up to the time of writing (2013) and providing a retrospective on the 'war on terror'. Using empirical data located within multiple spheres, the book draws on sociology, political science and international relations, developing an interdisciplinary analysis of political communication in the international system. It shows how media technologies presented legal, structural and cultural problems for what were seen as rigid propaganda systems defined by their emergence in an old media system of sovereign states with stable target audiences. Propaganda successes and advances were an inconsistent by-product both of malfunction and of relationships, cultures and rivalries, both domestically and between the partners. The differing social relations of planners and propagandists to wider society create tensions within the 'machine', however leaders may want it to function. The book demonstrates that the 'messy' nature of bureaucracy and international systems as well as the increasingly fluid media environment are all important in shaping what actually happens. In a context of initial failures in formal coordination, the book stresses the importance of informal relationships to planners in the propaganda war. This situated Britain in an important yet precarious position within the Anglo-American propaganda effort, particularly in Iraq.

Security aid, impunity and Muslim alienation
Jeremy Prestholdt

established pattern of al Shabaab actions. Events at Westgate encapsulated the recurring dynamics of terrorism and counterterrorism in Kenya. First, the attackers chose a ‘soft’ target. As in the past, this resulted in maximum media attention and a high number of civilian deaths, non-Muslims in particular. Second, despite warnings that such an attack was imminent, the assault evidenced a slow and uncoordinated response by security forces. 6 Finally, the attackers imagined their actions to be retaliation for those of Kenyan security forces domestically and in

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Disputed boundaries of a postcolonial state
Evan A. Laksmana and Michael Newell

This chapter seeks to describe how Indonesia has dealt with the threat of terrorism in the post-9/11 era. However, beyond merely identifying the country's counterterror policies, the analysis is placed within the broader context of how the state has historically dealt with internal security threats. This chapter argues that, contrary to the rhetoric of the ‘war on terror’, Indonesia's counterterrorism policies are neither a specific response to transnational terror networks, nor simply a by-product of the post-9/11 era. Instead, Indonesia

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
An ad hoc response to an enduring and variable threat
Rashmi Singh

Introduction On 26 November 2008, the world watched in horror as ten armed men in a series of coordinated attacks wrought havoc on the Indian coastal city of Mumbai. Terrorism in India had made the headlines – again. While these were neither India's, nor indeed Mumbai's, first major terrorist attacks, their sheer scale and innovation, the high number of foreigners killed, and the inability of India's security apparatus to respond in a timely and effective manner quite rightly focused the world's attention upon India's counterterrorism (CT

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
A bumpy road
Manoj Joshi

as undertake bilateral and multilateral cooperation through which they can deal with terrorism. India and the U.S. may be geographically distant, but both have experienced terrorism and have come to a common understanding that cooperation in counterterrorism (CT) is in their mutual interest and in the interests of the international community. As the chapter will show, the two countries have been cooperating on CT since the 1980s. However, differing perspectives, structural constraints and varying priorities have

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Chiyuki Aoi and Yee-Kuang Heng

terms of how it has responded to terrorist incidents, the country has not always paralleled Western practices. Japan's pacifism following World War Two and public concerns over a police state have further shaped the way it has implemented its domestic counterterrorism policies. According to the seminal work by Katzenstein and Tsujinaka, the Japanese Government's management of domestic security has been normatively driven, and can only be understood in the context of social and cultural norms in Japanese society. 4 As such, in this chapter, we build on this argument

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Striking the balance
Tricia Bacon

Introduction The U.S.–India strategic partnership is often heralded as rooted in the shared values of democracies, 1 but in practice the counterterrorism relationship is a sometimes uneasy combination of shared values and interests that do not fully align, especially when it comes to Pakistan. Despite differences, since the efforts to forge a stronger relationship between the two countries began in earnest in 2000, counterterrorism has featured prominently on the bilateral agenda. Counterterrorism was one

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Analytical techniques
Christopher Baker-Beall

1 Investigating the language of EU counter-terrorism: analytical techniques Introduction Research on counter-terrorism is united by a concern with the way in which various actors define, understand and respond to the threat of terrorism. However, beyond this broad commitment it is possible to identify a variety of approaches to the study of counter-terrorism that differ as a direct result of the implicit and explicit assumptions that each individual researcher makes about the social world. Traditional approaches to counter-terrorism predominantly begin from a

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Richard Jackson

aspects: the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq; the strategic dimensions of American oil policy; the operation and organisation of terrorist cells around the world; international security cooperation between nations; the fate of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay; the legal dimensions of counter-terrorism; new homeland security measures such as law-enforcement cooperation and immigration control; and the Bush

in Writing the war on terrorism