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Gareth Atkins

Ever since his violent death in 1556, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer had been used by rival groups to justify their views about the Church of England. Thanks chiefly to John Foxe his burning, in particular, became central to Protestant narratives. In the nineteenth century, however, confessional stories became hotly contested, and amid the ‘rage of history’ erstwhile heroes and martyrs were placed under intense scrutiny. This article uses Cranmers fluctuating reputation as a lens through which to explore changing understandings of the English past. As will become clear, uncertainties over how to place Cranmer bespoke a crisis of Anglican identity, one driven both by divisions within the Church of England and challenges to its political, cultural and intellectual authority from without. Despite and perhaps because of shifts in how he was seen, Cranmers liturgical writings - the Book of Common Prayer - came to be seen as his chief legacy.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist
Robert G. Ingram

Corporation Acts. It shows how those sacramental debates got refracted through the memory of the seventeenth century which had produced the Test and Corporation Acts. Finally, it demonstrates why Waterland thought that when responding to Hoadly he was but reiterating Thomas Cranmer’s sacramental theology, which itself had reiterated the pure sacramental theology of the primitive Church. Both Waterland and Hoadly thought that theirs was a replay of older debates in a new, post-­ revolutionary setting. For the orthodox like Waterland, Benjamin Hoadly (1676–1761) epitomized

in Reformation without end
Rosemary O’Day

to vindicate contemporary Catholicism by an analysis of Catholic and Protestant behaviour under Mary, despite their acknowledgement that this behaviour had been moulded by now extinct forces. Vilification of Thomas Cranmer It was thought necessary to divert Protestant attention from the persecuting activities of Gardiner, Bonner, and Pole under Mary I by vilification of Thomas Cranmer. Looking back upon writings of the period by Catholics and Protestants, Dean Hook explained: By party writers, on one side an attempt is made to represent Cranmer as a persecutor

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Confessional conflict and Elizabethan romances
Christina Wald

rather than in (often mumbled) Latin as in the Roman Catholic Sarum mass and by administering bread and wine to the laity, too. The Roman Catholic liturgy and doctrine of transubstantiation were maintained during the early years of Reformation under Henry VIII. When Henry’s young son Edward ascended the throne, the English Reformation gained momentum. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury and the leading theologian during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, gradually adopted Zwingli’s figurative understanding of the sacraments as the official Anglican position

in Forms of faith
Abstract only
David M. Bergeron

Cardinal Wolsey, and at the end the birth of Elizabeth, complete with Archbishop Cranmer’s prophecy about her and her successor, the current King James I. In Act 2 alone we find Buckingham’s destruction, increasing complaints about Wolsey, and Katherine’s trial in which she offers a rousing defence. Each situation seems to carry seeds of the other. Act 3 focuses on Wolsey’s fall, and scene 2 provides

in Shakespeare’s London 1613
Abstract only
Reformation: reformulation, reiteration and reflection
Rosemary O’Day

view that the English Reformation was a political act first and foremost, and that the sanctity of Protestant heroes such as Thomas Cranmer and Anne Boleyn was not beyond doubt. If some attention was given to the spirituality of the Catholic Church which was destroyed (by Milner, for example), the spirituality of the Protestant Reformation was merely attacked and demolished. Even Protestant historians such as Turner were able to give relatively little attention to the spread of the new faith which buttressed the official Reformation. Working with official state and

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Margaret Christian

 know that that blessid martir of God Thomas Cranmer Byshop of Canterbury, did much trauaile in it, and furthered it: but if God had not gyuen Quene Anne fauour in the sight of the kynge, as he gaue to Hester in the sight of Nabucadnezar [sic, for Ahasuerus]:  Haman and his company, The Cardinall, Wynchester, More, Rochest. and other wold sone haue trised vp Mardocheus with al the rest that leaned to that side. Wherfore though many deserued muche praise for the helping forwarde of it: yet the croppe and roote was the Quene, wiche God had endewed with wisdome that she

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis
The polity of the British episcopal churches, 1603–62
Benjamin M. Guyer

normative textual authorities, most notably the liturgies found in the Book of Common Prayer and the bodies of seventeenth-century canon law. These buttressed a ceremonial continuity that began with Elizabeth I; it continued until the Church of England was proscribed during the civil wars,2 but it was revived at the Restoration. Second, and more specifically, this chapter studies the reception by early Stuart divines of Archbishop Cranmer’s conviction that ‘It is evident unto all men, diligently reading holy scripture, and ancient authors, that from the Apostles’ time

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
Confessional conflict and the origins of English Protestantism in Samuel Rowley’s When You See Me You Know Me (1605)
Brian Walsh

Church. Catholic polemicists derisively posed the question ‘Where was your Church before Luther’ again and again as part of their claim that the Roman Church, centered on the papacy, represented continuity from Peter until the present day. The standard Protestant answer usually involved some argument that they had not invented a new Church but merely resurfaced, revived, or reconnected to a primitive one that the papacy had corrupted.2 Archbishop Cranmer even fixed a date 600 CE as the moment when Roman influence cut the English Church off from apostolic purity, and

in Forms of faith
Negotiating the legal definition of madness
James E. Moran

result of the interplay of the social dynamics of actual cases, of the laws that structured lunacy trials and of the use of precedent as a tool of interpretation. The result was a kind of legal dialogue on the ambiguities of insanity that was threaded through the reports on the trials. It is possible to trace this thread running through the cases of Lord Donegal, Ann Kendrick, Henry Cranmer, Kitty Sherwood and Ann Goodwin. In the case of Lord Donegal, the Lord Chancellor noted that a commission of lunacy had been issued against him in 1750 but that, after a personal

in Madness on trial