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A Postcolonial Geography
Author: Richard Philips

The operation of the British model of imperialism was never consistent, seldom coherent, and far from comprehensive. Purity campaigns, controversies about the age of consent, the regulation of prostitution and passage and repeal of contagious diseases laws, as well as a new legislative awareness of homosexuality, were all part of the sexual currency of the late Victorian age. Colonial governments, institutions and companies recognised that in many ways the effective operation of the Empire depended upon sexual arrangements. They devised elaborate systems of sexual governance, but also devoted disproportionate energy to marking and policing the sexual margins. This book not only investigates controversies surrounding prostitution, homosexuality and the age of consent in the British Empire, but also revolutionises people's notions about the importance of sex as a nexus of imperial power relations. The derivative hypothesis, which reads colonial sexuality politics as something England did or gave to its colonies, is illustrated and made explicit by the Indian Spectator, which seemed simply to accept that India should follow English precedent. In 1885, the South Australian parliament passed legislation, similar to England's Criminal Law Amendment Act, which raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 and introduced a series of restrictions and regulations on sexual conduct. Richard Francis Burton's case against the moral universalism and sex between men are discussed. 'Cognitively mapping' sexuality politics, the book has traced connections between people, places and politics, exploring both their dangers and opportunities, which revolve in each case around embroilments in global power.

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Australian activists on the age of consent and prostitution
Richard Philips

legislation, similar to England’s Criminal Law Amendment Act, which raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 and introduced a series of other restrictions and regulations on sexual conduct. The events leading up to the enactment of this legislation had begun five years earlier. A paper entitled ‘Our duty as to public morals’ was read at the Annual Meeting of the Congregational Union (April 22, 1880), which appointed a committee to examine the state of public morality in the colony. The investigation did not get off the ground, but

in Sex, politics and empire
Prostitutes and prostitution
Leanne McCormick

night walker loitering or being in any public place or thoroughfare for the purpose of prostitution or solicitation, to the annoyance of the inhabitants or passengers shall be liable to a penalty of 40/- or in default of payment to one month’s imprisonment.50 M1854 - McCORMICK TXT.indd 23 18/8/09 16:42:05 24 Regulating sexuality This was similar to the provision in the Towns Improvement Act (Ireland) 1854, which applied to many of the smaller towns in Northern Ireland.51 The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885 provided for the summary conviction of brothel keepers

in Regulating sexuality
The Carrigan Committee, the age of consent, and adoption
Moira Maguire

provide further insights into how the state conceived of its responsibility to vulnerable children. Even here the best interests of children became secondary to more pressing political issues, such as the official desire to uphold the nationalist image of independent Ireland, to pacify the Catholic hierarchy, and to uphold male sexual privilege. In analyzing the events and debates surrounding passage of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act (1935) and the Adoption Act (1952) this chapter considers the extent to which vulnerable children were used (or indeed abused), in a

in Precarious childhood in post-independence Ireland
Laura Schwartz

CD repeal movement in the 1880s. Social purity activists engaged in rescue work, agitated to increase the age of consent, and in some cases, campaigned for the closure of brothels and prosecution of brothel owners. The social purity organisation the National Vigilance Association (NVA) supported the Criminal Law Amendment Act (1885), which allowed for the forcible closure of all brothels and the prosecution of anyone renting accommodation to a

in Infidel feminism
Richard Burton’s interventions on sex between men
Richard Philips

to bury them with the barest of mentions, leaving them as a hidden subtext, an obvious and suggestive silence. A link might be made between this awkward silence in the ‘Maiden Tribute’ and new prohibitions against sex between male persons, which were included in the Criminal Law Amendment Act (1885). 15 Arguably Stead had helped place sex between men on the political agenda, if out of the reach of open debate. And there it remained. Those who spoke out against the new law tended to do so indirectly. The amendment had passed

in Sex, politics and empire
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legislation on sex crimes – including the notorious section 11 (‘Labouchère amendment’) of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, which outlawed ‘any act of gross indecency’ between males. The 1956 Act covered England and Wales, but not Scotland, where homosexual offences were still dealt with under the 1885 Act and various other laws. Numerous bye-laws were also used to control homosexual behaviour. These were regulations passed by local authorities, subject to ministerial confirmation, that covered various aspects of public order, behaviour and decency. They often included

in Odd men out
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Mapping the tyranny
Richard Philips

’. 10 Various forms of criminal and family law governed the age at which girls and young women could lawfully consent to sex without penalty to either themselves or their male sexual partners (sex with other girls or women was not legally recognised). 11 Sex between men was not so much regulated as prohibited in the British Empire, though the form of this prohibition varied. In England the Criminal Law Amendment Act (1885) set a two-year jail term for sex between men. In most other parts of the Empire, approximations

in Sex, politics and empire
English newspapers, correspondents, travellers
Richard Philips

existed between England and Europe. He argued that essentially the same thing was happening ‘between certain European countries and English possessions in the East’, 134 and that the authorities should respond as they had in England, by raising the age of consent, asserting that ‘it is certainly not too much to ask that the Viceroy of India in Council should enact a law, for the whole of the British Indian Empire, upon the lines of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885’. 135

in Sex, politics and empire
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Sexuality, Irish moral politics and capitalist crisis,1920–40
Michael G. Cronin

, established in 1927, included an examination of the issue of single mothers. Between 1930 and 1934 different pieces of legislation were enacted to allow unmarried mothers to claim maintenance from their child’s father, to make children legitimate if their parents married, and to regulate private maternity homes.10 The most far-reaching of these statutory bodies of inquiry into the regulation of sexual behaviour was the Committee on the Criminal Law Amendment Act and Juvenile Prostitution, which is commonly known as the Carrigan Committee after its chairman, William Carrigan

in Impure thoughts